Cancer Prevention - IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention
Effectiveness of Tax and Price Policies for Tobacco Control
IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention Volume 14
This new volume of the IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention in Tobacco Control presents a critical review and evaluation of the evidence by 25 international experts from twelve countries on the economics, epidemiology, public policy and tobacco control aspects of tax and price policies. The working group draws conclusions about the effectiveness of tax and price measures to control tobacco use in the population. The Handbook covers an overview of tobacco taxation; industry pricing strategies and other industry initiatives diluting the effects of taxes on consumption; tax, price and aggregated demand for tobacco, as well as demand at the individual level in adults, young people and the economically disadvantaged; tax avoidance and tax evasion and the economic and health impacts of tobacco taxation.
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Smoke-free Policies
IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention Volume 13
This volume is a critical review of the published literature on this highly sensitive issue, led by a Working Group of 17 scientists from nine countries, which draws conclusions about the effectiveness of smoke-free policies. The volume covers the evolution of smoke-free policies, the impact of smoke-free policies on businesses in the hospitality sector, public attitudes towards smoke-free policies and compliance, reductions in exposure to secondhand smoke and the effects on health due to restrictions on smoking following policy implementation. It also considers the effects of mandated smoking restrictions on smoking behaviour, and the effects of voluntary home smoking restrictions on exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking behaviour. This Handbook will be useful for health professionals and policymakers alike in countries that are currently considering legislation to protect the population from tobacco.
Methods for Evaluating Tobacco Control Policies
IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention Volume 12
This volume concentrates on evaluating the impact of societal level interventions to control tobacco use and it is offered as a guide to evaluators in the field. The Handbook covers how the effects of a policy are determined, the core constructs for understanding how and why a given policy works, the potential moderator variables to consider when evaluating a given policy and the data sources that might be useful for evaluation. The Handbook includes logic models outlining relevant constructs for evaluating the effectiveness of policies on tobacco taxation, smoke-free environments, tobacco product regulations, limits on tobacco marketing communications, product labeling, anti-tobacco public communication campaigns and tobacco use cessation interventions.
ISBN 92 832 3010 8
Cervix Cancer Screening
IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention Volume 10
This volume reviews what is known about the occurrence, natural history and causes, before describing the established methods and newer variants and approaches for screening that are now being introduced, tested or investigated. Based on an international meeting of experts, the volume concludes with their evaluation of the evidence on the efficacy of screening for cervical cancer by the various techniques as well as their relative appropriateness depending on the resources available and competing priorities. It also provides recommendations for the public health implementation of screening, including the frequency of screening and the age groups that should constitute the target population, and the identification of areas for further research.
ISBN 92 832 3007 8
Breast Cancer Screening
IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention Volume 7
Breast cancer is the leading site of new cancer cases in women. Early enough detection through mass screening with mammography has been introduced in many countries in the hope that early intervention would lead ro reduced mortality and less aggressive treatment. The aim of this publication is to provide an independent, authoritative review of the evidence of the efficacy and effectiveness of breast cancer screening. This will be of value to governments, public health officials and others concerned with policy recommendations for cancer control.
ISBN 92 832 3006 X
Weight Control and Physical Activity
IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention Volume 6
Maintaing a healthy body weight and regular physical activity is, after tobacco control, the second most important way to prevent cancer.
The suggestions of possible public health action aimed at tackling these risk factors include education activities to promote balanced diets which are not excessive in energy, and broad education and planning to enable and encourage physical activity during work and leisure. The Handbook Weight Control and Physical Activity contains a full discussion of this topic, together with recommendations for public health action.
ISBN 92 832 3004 3
IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention Volume 4
Retinoids are a class of compounds structurally related to vitamin A. More than 2500 retinoids have been synthesized and tested for biological activity. Nine of these were evaluated as agents for cancer chemoprevention by an international group of experts at a meeting held in March 1999. Some are agents in clinical use for psoriasis or severe acne, and others are undergoing clinical trials for prevention of second primary tumours in patients with head and neck tumours or breast cancer, while all-transretinoic acid is used in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukaemias. The toxicity of these agents was subjected to close scrutiny by the working group, which concluded that, for nearly all these agents, even if they are eventually shown to be effective for cancer prevention in humans, their toxicity is likely to limit their use.
ISBN 92 832 3003 5
IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention Volume 3
This third volume of the IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention evaluates the cancer preventive potential of vitamin A. The handbook provides a comprehensive review and evaluation of the relevant information in the published scientific literature through April 1998 on the cancer-preventive activity of retinol and retinyl esters. The observed effects of preformed vitamin A on cell and organ culture, on animal models, in dietary observational epidemiological studies, and in human intervention studies are reviewed.
ISBN 92 832 3002 7
IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention Volume 2
In this volume on carotenoids their chemical and physical characteristics, occurrence, production, use, analysis and human exposure, metabolism, kinetics and genetic variation are studied, as well as their cancer-preventive effects, other beneficial effects, carcinogenicity and other toxic effects. A summary of data and recommendations for research are provided at the end.
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