You are here: Home

Search Result (501 REFERENCES)

2014

Lifetime alcohol use and overall and cause-specific mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study

Ferrari P., Licaj I., Muller D.C., Kragh Andersen P., Johansson M., Boeing H., Weiderpass E., Dossus L., Dartois L., Fagherazzi G., Bradbury K.E., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Duell E.J., Barricarte A., Molina-Montes E., Sanchez C.N., Arriola L., Wallstrom P., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Trichopoulou A., Benetou V., Trichopoulos D., Tumino R., Agnoli C., Sacerdote C., Palli D., Li K., Kaaks R., Peeters P., Beulens J.W., Nunes L., Gunter M., Norat T., Overvad K., Brennan P., Riboli E., Romieu I.

BMJ Open; 2014; 4(7): e005245

PMID:24993766

Abstract as provided by PubMed

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the role of factors that modulate the association between alcohol and mortality, and to provide estimates of absolute risk of death. DESIGN: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC). SETTING: 23 centres in 10 countries. PARTICIPANTS: 380 395 men and women, free of cancer, diabetes, heart attack or stroke at enrolment, followed up for 12.6 years on average. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 20 453 fatal events, of which 2053 alcohol-related cancers (ARC, including cancers of upper aerodigestive tract, liver, colorectal and female breast), 4187 cardiovascular diseases/coronary heart disease (CVD/CHD), 856 violent deaths and injuries. Lifetime alcohol use was assessed at recruitment. RESULTS: HRs comparing extreme drinkers (>/=30 g/day in women and >/=60 g/day in men) to moderate drinkers (0.1-4.9 g/day) were 1.27 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.43) in women and 1.53 (1.39 to 1.68) in men. Strong associations were observed for ARC mortality, in men particularly, and for violent deaths and injuries, in men only. No associations were observed for CVD/CHD mortality among drinkers, whereby HRs were higher in never compared to moderate drinkers. Overall mortality seemed to be more strongly related to beer than wine use, particularly in men. The 10-year risks of overall death for women aged 60 years, drinking more than 30 g/day was 5% and 7%, for never and current smokers, respectively. Corresponding figures in men consuming more than 60 g/day were 11% and 18%, in never and current smokers, respectively. In competing risks analyses, mortality due to CVD/CHD was more pronounced than ARC in men, while CVD/CHD and ARC mortality were of similar magnitude in women. CONCLUSIONS: In this large European cohort, alcohol use was positively associated with overall mortality, ARC and violent death and injuries, but marginally to CVD/CHD. Absolute risks of death observed in EPIC suggest that alcohol is an important determinant of total mortality

Adherence to predefined dietary patterns and incident type 2 diabetes in European populations: EPIC-InterAct Study

InterAct Consortium, Kroeger J., Slimani N., et al.

Diabetologia; 2014; 57(2): 321-333

PMID:24196190

Abstract as provided by PubMed

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Few studies have investigated the relationship between predefined dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes incidence; little is known about the generalisability of these associations. We aimed to assess the association between predefined dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes risk in European populations. METHODS: From among a case-cohort of 12,403 incident diabetes cases and 16,154 subcohort members nested within the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study, we used data on 9,682 cases and 12,595 subcohort participants from seven countries. Habitual dietary intake was assessed at baseline with country-specific dietary questionnaires. Two diet-quality scores (alternative Healthy Eating Index [aHEI], Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH] score) and three reduced rank regression (RRR)-derived dietary-pattern scores were constructed. Country-specific HRs were calculated and combined using a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: After multivariable adjustment, including body size, the aHEI and DASH scores were not significantly associated with diabetes, although for the aHEI there was a tendency towards an inverse association in countries with higher mean age. We observed inverse associations of the three RRR-derived dietary-pattern scores with diabetes: HRs (95% CIs) for a 1-SD difference were 0.91 (0.86, 0.96), 0.92 (0.84, 1.01) and 0.87 (0.82, 0.92). Random-effects meta-analyses revealed heterogeneity between countries that was explainable by differences in the age of participants or the distribution of dietary intake. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Adherence to specific RRR-derived dietary patterns, commonly characterised by high intake of fruits or vegetables and low intake of processed meat, sugar-sweetened beverages and refined grains, may lower type 2 diabetes risk

Circulating biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism in relation to renal cell carcinoma incidence and survival

Johansson M., Fanidi A., Muller D.C., Bassett J.K., Midttun O., Vollset S.E., Travis R.C., Palli D., Mattiello A., Sieri S., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Trichopoulos D., Ljungberg B., Hallmans G., Weiderpass E., Skeie G., Gonzalez C.A., Dorronsoro M., Peeters P.H., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Ros M.M., Boutron Ruault M.C., Fagherazzi G., Clavel F., Sanchez M.J., Gurrea A.B., Navarro C., Quiros J.R., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Aleksandrova K., Vineis P., Gunter M.J., Kaaks R., Giles G., Relton C., Riboli E., Boeing H., Ueland P.M., Severi G., Brennan P.

J Natl Cancer Inst; 2014; 106(12): pii: dju327

PMID:25376861

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: The etiology of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is only partially understood, but a metabolic component appears likely. We investigated biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism and RCC onset and survival. METHODS: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) recruited 385747 participants with blood samples between 1992 and 2000, and this analysis included 556 RCC case-control pairs. A subsequent replication study included 144 case-control pairs nested within the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS). Plasma concentrations of vitamin B2, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, methionine and homocysteine were measured in prediagnostic samples and evaluated with respect to RCC risk using conditional and unconditional logistic regression models, and to all-cause mortality in RCC cases using Cox regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: EPIC participants with higher plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 had lower risk of RCC, the odds ratio comparing the 4(th) and 1(st) quartiles (OR4vs1) being 0.40 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.28 to 0.57, P trend < .001. We found similar results after adjusting for potential confounders (adjusted P trend < .001). In survival analysis, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality in RCC cases when comparing the 4(th) and 1(st) quartiles (HR4vs1) of vitamin B6 was 0.57 (95% CI = 0.37 to 0.87, P trend < .001). Subsequent replication of these associations within the MCCS yielded very similar results for both RCC risk (OR4vs1 = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.23 to 0.99, P trend = .07) and all-cause mortality (HR4vs1 = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.27 to 1.17, P trend = .02). No association was evident for the other measured biomarkers. CONCLUSION: Study participants with higher circulating concentrations of vitamin B6 had lower risk of RCC and improved survival following diagnosis in two independent cohorts

Premenopausal serum sex hormone levels in relation to breast cancer risk, overall and by hormone receptor status-Results from the EPIC cohort

Kaaks R., Tikk K., Sookthai D., Schock H., Johnson T., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Overvad K., Clavel-Chapelon F., Dossus L., Baglietto L., Rinaldi S., Chajes V., Romieu I., Boeing H., Schutze M., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Trichopoulos D., Palli D., Sieri S., Tumino R., Ricceri F., Mattiello A., Buckland G., Ramon Quiros J., Sanchez M.J., Amiano P., Chirlaque M.D., Barricarte A., Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita H., Van Gils C.H., Peeters P.H., Andersson A., Sund M., Weiderpass E., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Key T.J., Travis R.C., Merritt M.A., Gunter M.J., Riboli E., Lukanova A.

Int J Cancer; 2014; 134(8): 1947-1957

PMID:24155248

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Results from prospective studies on premenopausal serum hormone levels in relation to breast cancer risk have been inconclusive, especially with regard to tumor subtypes. Using a case-control study nested within the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (801 breast cancer cases and 1,132 matched control subjects), we analyzed the relationships of prediagnostic serum estradiol, free estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, free testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels with the risk of breast cancer by estrogen and progesterone receptor-positive and -negative breast tumors and by age at diagnoses. Higher prediagnostic serum levels of testosterone and free testosterone were associated with an increased overall risk of breast cancer [ORQ4-Q1 = 1.56 (95% CI 1.15-2.13), ptrend = 0.02 for testosterone and ORQ4-Q1 = 1.33 (95% CI 0.99-1.79), ptrend = 0.04 for free testosterone], but no significant risk association was observed for estradiol, free estradiol, progesterone and SHBG. Tests for heterogeneity between receptor-positive and -negative tumors were not significant. When analysis were stratified by age at tumor diagnosis, the odds ratios observed for estradiol were stronger and borderline significant for breast cancer diagnosed at age less than 50 [ORQ4-Q1 = 1.32 (95% CI 0.87-2.01), ptrend = 0.05] compared to breast cancer diagnosed at age 50 or above [ORQ4-Q1 = 0.94 (95% CI 0.60-1.47), ptrend = 0.34, phet = 0.04]. In conclusion, our data indicate that higher premenopausal circulating testosterone levels are associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer, but do not show a significant association of estradiol or progesterone with breast cancer risk, overall, by menstrual cycle phase or by tumor receptor status, although a possible risk increase with higher estradiol levels for tumors diagnosed before age 50 was seen

Risk factors for cancers of unknown primary site: Results from the prospective EPIC cohort

Kaaks R., Sookthai D., Hemminki K., Kramer A., Boeing H., Wirfalt E., Weiderpass E., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Peeters P.H., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Panico S., Pala V., Vineis P., Quiros J.R., Ardanaz E., Sanchez M.J., Chirlaque M.D., Larranaga N., Brennan P., Trichopoulos D., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Hallmans G., Khaw K.T., Key T.J., Riboli E., Canzian F.

Int J Cancer; 2014; 135(10): 2475-2481

PMID:24692151

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) may be called an "orphan" disease, as it is diagnosed when metastases are detected while the primary tumor typically remains undetected, and because little research has been done on its primary causes. So far, few epidemiological studies, if any, have addressed possible risk factors for CUP. We analyzed data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (N = 476,940). During prospective follow-up, a total of 651 cases of incident cases of CUP were detected (ICD-O-2 code C809). Proportional hazards models were conducted to examine the associations of lifetime history of smoking habits, alcohol consumption, levels of education and anthropometric indices of adiposity with risk of being diagnosed with CUP. Risk of being diagnosed with CUP was strongly related to smoking, with a relative risk of 3.66 [95% C.I., 2.24-5.97] for current, heavy smokers (26+ cigarettes/day) compared to never smokers (adjusted for alcohol consumption, body mass index, waist circumference and level of education) and a relative risk of 5.12 [3.09-8.47] for cases with CUP who died within 12 months. For alcohol consumption and level of education, weaker associations were observed but attenuated and no longer statistically significant after adjusting for smoking and indices of obesity. Finally, risk of CUP was increased by approximately 30 per cent for subjects in the highest versus lowest quartiles of waist circumference. Our analyses provide further documentation, in addition to autopsy studies, that a substantial proportion of cancers of unknown primary site may have their origin in smoking-related tumors, in particular

Plasma alkylresorcinols, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, and incidence of colorectal cancer

Kyro C., Olsen A., Landberg R., Skeie G., Loft S., Aman P., Leenders M., Dik V.K., Siersema P.D., Pischon T., Christensen J., Overvad K., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Fagherazzi G., Cottet V., Kuhn T., Chang-Claude J., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Bamia C., Trichopoulos D., Palli D., Krogh V., Tumino R., Vineis P., Panico S., Peeters P.H., Weiderpass E., Bakken T., Asli L.A., Arguelles M., Jakszyn P., Sanchez M.J., Amiano P., Huerta J.M., Barricarte A., Ljuslinder I., Palmqvist R., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Key T.J., Travis R.C., Ferrari P., Freisling H., Jenab M., Gunter M.J., Murphy N., Riboli E., Tjonneland A., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B.

J Natl Cancer Inst; 2014; 106(1): djt352

PMID:24317181

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the association between whole-grain intake and colorectal cancer. Because whole-grain intake estimation might be prone to measurement errors, more objective measures (eg, biomarkers) could assist in investigating such associations. METHODS: The association between alkylresorcinols, biomarkers of whole-grain rye and wheat intake, and colorectal cancer incidence were investigated using prediagnostic plasma samples from colorectal cancer case patients and matched control subjects nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. We included 1372 incident colorectal cancer case patients and 1372 individual matched control subjects and calculated the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for overall and anatomical subsites of colorectal cancer using conditional logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders. Regional differences (Scandinavia, the Mediterranean, Central Europe) were also explored. RESULTS: High plasma total alkylresorcinol concentration was associated with lower incidence of distal colon cancer; the adjusted incidence rate ratio of distal colon cancer for the highest vs lowest quartile of plasma total alkylresorcinols was 0.48 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.28 to 0.83). An inverse association between plasma total alkylresorcinol concentrations and colon cancer was found for Scandinavian participants (IRR per doubling = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.70 to 0.98). However, plasma total alkylresorcinol concentrations were not associated with overall colorectal cancer, proximal colon cancer, or rectal cancer. Plasma alkylresorcinols concentrations were associated with colon and distal colon cancer only in Central Europe and Scandinavia (ie, areas where alkylresorcinol levels were higher). CONCLUSIONS: High concentrations of plasma alkylresorcinols were associated with a lower incidence of distal colon cancer but not with overall colorectal cancer, proximal colon cancer, and rectal cancer

Plasma alkylresorcinol concentrations, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

Kyro C., Olsen A., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Skeie G., Loft S., Aman P., Leenders M., Dik V.K., Siersema P.D., Pischon T., Christensen J., Overvad K., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Fagherazzi G., Cottet V., Kuhn T., Chang-Claude J., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Naska A., Oikonomidou D., Masala G., Pala V., Tumino R., Vineis P., Mattiello A., Peeters P.H., Bakken T., Weiderpass E., Asli L.A., Sanchez S., Jakszyn P., Sanchez M.J., Amiano P., Huerta J.M., Barricarte A., Ljuslinder I., Palmqvist R., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Key T.J., Travis R.C., Slimani N., Freisling H., Ferrari P., Gunter M.J., Murphy N., Riboli E., Tjonneland A., Landberg R.

Br J Nutr; 2014; 111(10): 1881-1890

PMID:24521535

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Whole-grain intake has been reported to be associated with a lower risk of several lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, CVD and some types of cancers. As measurement errors in self-reported whole-grain intake assessments can be substantial, dietary biomarkers are relevant to be used as complementary tools for dietary intake assessment. Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids found almost exclusively in whole-grain wheat and rye products among the commonly consumed foods and are considered as valid biomarkers of the intake of these products. In the present study, we analysed the plasma concentrations of five AR homologues in 2845 participants from ten European countries from a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. High concentrations of plasma total AR were found in participants from Scandinavia and Central Europe and lower concentrations in those from the Mediterranean countries. The geometric mean plasma total AR concentrations were between 35 and 41 nmol/l in samples drawn from fasting participants in the Central European and Scandinavian countries and below 23 nmol/l in those of participants from the Mediterranean countries. The whole-grain source (wheat or rye) could be determined using the ratio of two of the homologues. The main source was wheat in Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK, whereas rye was also consumed in considerable amounts in Germany, Denmark and Sweden. The present study demonstrates a considerable variation in the plasma concentrations of total AR and concentrations of AR homologues across ten European countries, reflecting both quantitative and qualitative differences in the intake of whole-grain wheat and rye

Plasma and dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Leenders M., Leufkens A.M., Siersema P.D., van Duijnhoven F.J., Vrieling A., Hulshof P.J., Van Gils C.H., Overvad K., Roswall N., Kyro C., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Fagerhazzi G., Cadeau C., Kuhn T., Johnson T., Boeing H., Aleksandrova K., Trichopoulou A., Klinaki E., Androulidaki A., Palli D., Grioni S., Sacerdote C., Tumino R., Panico S., Bakker M.F., Skeie G., Weiderpass E., Jakszyn P., Barricarte A., Maria Huerta J., Molina-Montes E., Arguelles M., Johansson I., Ljuslinder I., Key T.J., Bradbury K.E., Khaw K.T., Wareham N.J., Ferrari P., Duarte-Salles T., Jenab M., Gunter M.J., Vergnaud A.C., Wark P.A., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B.

Int J Cancer; 2014; 135(12): 2930-2939

PMID:24771392

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E are possibly associated with a reduced colorectal cancer (CRC) risk through antioxidative properties. The association of prediagnostic plasma concentrations and dietary consumption of carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E with the risk of colon and rectal cancer was examined in this case-control study, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Plasma concentrations of carotenoids (alpha- and beta-carotene, canthaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, zeaxanthin) and vitamins A (retinol), C and E (alpha-, beta- and gamma- and delta-tocopherol) and dietary consumption of beta-carotene and vitamins A, C and E were determined in 898 colon cancer cases, 501 rectal cancer cases and 1,399 matched controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were performed to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). An association was observed between higher prediagnostic plasma retinol concentration and a lower risk of colon cancer (IRR for highest quartile = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.87, p for trend = 0.01), most notably proximal colon cancer (IRR for highest quartile = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.77, p for trend = 0.01). Additionally, inverse associations for dietary beta-carotene and dietary vitamins C and E with (distal) colon cancer were observed. Although other associations were suggested, there seems little evidence for a role of these selected compounds in preventing CRC through their antioxidative properties

Fruit and vegetable intake and cause-specific mortality in the EPIC study

Leenders M., Boshuizen H.C., Ferrari P., Siersema P.D., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Dossus L., Dartois L., Kaaks R., Li K., Boeing H., Bergmann M.M., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Trichopoulos D., Palli D., Krogh V., Panico S., Tumino R., Vineis P., Peeters P.H., Weiderpass E., Engeset D., Braaten T., Redondo M.L., Agudo A., Sanchez M.J., Amiano P., Huerta J.M., Ardanaz E., Drake I., Sonestedt E., Johansson I., Winkvist A., Khaw K.T., Wareham N.J., Key T.J., Bradbury K.E., Johansson M., Licaj I., Gunter M.J., Murphy N., Riboli E., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B.

Eur J Epidemiol; 2014; 29(9): 639-652

PMID:25154553 http://link

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower overall mortality. The aim of this study was to identify causes of death through which this association is established. More than 450,000 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study were included, of which 25,682 were reported deceased after 13 years of follow-up. Information on lifestyle, diet and vital status was collected through questionnaires and population registries. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) for death from specific causes were calculated from Cox regression models, adjusted for potential confounders. Participants reporting consumption of more than 569 g/day of fruits and vegetables had lower risks of death from diseases of the circulatory (HR for upper fourth 0.85, 95 % CI 0.77-0.93), respiratory (HR for upper fourth 0.73, 95 % CI 0.59-0.91) and digestive system (HR for upper fourth 0.60, 95 % CI 0.46-0.79) when compared with participants consuming less than 249 g/day. In contrast, a positive association with death from diseases of the nervous system was observed. Inverse associations were generally observed for vegetable, but not for fruit consumption. Associations were more pronounced for raw vegetable consumption, when compared with cooked vegetable consumption. Raw vegetable consumption was additionally inversely associated with death from neoplasms and mental and behavioral disorders. The lower risk of death associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables may be derived from inverse associations with diseases of the circulatory, respiratory and digestive system, and may depend on the preparation of vegetables and lifestyle factors

Dietary intake of acrylamide and esophageal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort

Lujan-Barroso L., Gonzalez C.A., Slimani N., Obon-Santacana M., Ferrari P., Freisling H., Overvad K., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Racine A., Katzke V., Kuhn T., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Quiros J.R., Sanchez-Cantalejo E., Amiano P., Navarro C., Barricarte A., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Travis R.C., Trichopoulou A., Bamia C., Benetou V., Saieva C., Grioni S., Tumino R., Vineis P., Mattiello A., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Siersema P.D., Numans M.E., Peeters P.H., Ericson U., Wirfalt E., Sund M., Johansson M., Weiderpass E., Skeie G., Riboli E., Boeing H., Duell E.J.

Cancer Causes Control; 2014; 25(5): 639-646

PMID:24532026

Abstract as provided by PubMed

PURPOSE: The relation between dietary acrylamide intake and esophageal cancer (EC) risk, including esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), has not been consistent. We evaluated the association between dietary acrylamide intake and EAC, ESCC, and overall EC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the HR and 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI). Since nonlinear relations were observed, HRs were displayed for quartiles of acrylamide intake in mug per day. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 11 years, 341 EC were identified, 142 of which were EAC, 176 ESCC, and 23 other histological types or not specified. An increase in EC risk was observed in the second and third quartiles (HRQ2vsQ1 1.75, 95 % CI 1.12-2.74; HRQ3vsQ1 1.66, 95 % CI 1.05-2.61), but not in the fourth quartile, and there was no evidence for a linear dose-response trend. HRs were similarly elevated but not statistically significant when ESCC and EAC were analyzed separately, due to the small number of cases observed. No associations were observed when quartiles were based on energy-adjusted acrylamide intake. CONCLUSIONS: In the EPIC cohort, an association between estimated dietary acrylamide intake and an increased risk of developing EC was observed in the middle quartiles but not in the highest quartile; however, results from other larger cohorts or consortia, and results from biomarker studies, might add to the evidence provided by this analysis, suggesting that acrylamide is not an important risk factor for EC

Prediagnostic plasma testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, IGF-I and hepatocellular carcinoma: etiological factors or risk markers?

Lukanova A., Becker S., Husing A., Schock H., Fedirko V., Trepo E., Trichopoulou A., Bamia C., Lagiou P., Benetou V., Trichopoulos D., Nothlings U., Tjonneland A., Overvad K., Dossus L., Teucher B., Boeing H., Aleksandrova K., Palli D., Pala V., Panico S., Tumino R., Ricceri F., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Siersema P.D., Peeters P.H., Quiros J.R., Duell E.J., Molina-Montes E., Chirlaque M.D., Gurrea A.B., Dorronsoro M., Lindkvist B., Johansen D., Werner M., Sund M., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Key T.J., Travis R.C., Rinaldi S., Romieu I., Gunter M.J., Riboli E., Jenab M., Kaaks R.

Int J Cancer; 2014; 134(1): 164-173

PMID:23801371

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Elevated prediagnostic testosterone and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations have been proposed to increase risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the metabolism of these hormones is altered as a consequence of liver damage and they may have clinical utility as HCC risk markers. A case-control study was nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort and included 125 incident HCC cases and 247 individually matched controls. Testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and IGF-I were analyzed by immunoassays. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by conditional logistic regression. The area under the receiver operating curves (AUC) was calculated to assess HCC predictive ability of the tested models. After adjustments for epidemiological variables (body mass index, smoking, ethanol intake, hepatitis and diabetes) and liver damage (a score based on albumin, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransaminase, alanine aminotransaminase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase concentrations), only SHBG remained significantly associated with risk [OR for top versus bottom tertile of 3.86 (1.32-11.3), p(trend) = 0.009]. As a single factor SHBG had an AUC of 0.81 (0.75-0.86). A small, but significant increase in AUC was observed when SHBG was added to a model including the liver damage score and epidemiological variables (from 0.89 to 0.91, p = 0.02) and a net reclassification of 0.47% (0.45-0.48). The observed associations of HCC with prediagnostic SHBG, free testosterone and IGF-I concentrations are in directions opposite to that expected under the etiological hypotheses. SHBG has a potential to be tested as prediagnostic risk marker for HCC

Dietary fat intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Merritt M.A., Riboli E., Weiderpass E., Tsilidis K.K., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Hansen L., Dossus L., Fagherazzi G., Baglietto L., Fortner R.T., Ose J., Steffen A., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Trichopoulos D., Lagiou P., Masala G., Sieri S., Mattiello A., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Onland-Moret N.C., Peeters P.H., Hjartaker A., Gram I.T., Quiros J.R., Obon-Santacana M., Molina-Montes E., Huerta Castano J.M., Ardanaz E., Chamosa S., Sonestedt E., Idahl A., Lundin E., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Travis R.C., Rinaldi S., Romieu I., Chajes V., Gunter M.J.

Cancer Epidemiol; 2014; 38(5): 528-537

PMID:25155210

Abstract as provided by PubMed

There are inconsistent and limited data available to assess the relationship between fat intake and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We examined the consumption of total fat, fat sources and fat subtypes in relation to risk of EOC and its major histologic subtypes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition which includes incident invasive (n=1095) and borderline (n=96) EOC. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In multivariate models, we observed no association with consumption of total fat, animal or plant fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, monounsaturated fat, or fatty fish and risk of invasive EOC. There was, however, an increased risk of invasive EOC in the highest category of intake (Quartile 4 vs. Quartile 1) of polyunsaturated fat (HR=1.22, 95% CI=1.02-1.48, Ptrend=0.02). We did not observe heterogeneity in the risk associations in comparisons of serous and endometrioid histologic subtypes. This study does not support an etiological role for total fat intake in relation to EOC risk; however, based on observations of a positive association between intake of polyunsaturated fat and invasive EOC risk in the current and previous studies, this fat subtype warrants further investigation to determine its potential role in EOC development

Nutrient Patterns and Their Food Sources in an International Study Setting: Report from the EPIC Study

Moskal A., Pisa P.T., Ferrari P., Byrnes G., Freisling H., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Cadeau C., Nailler L., Wendt A., Kuhn T., Boeing H., Buijsse B., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Dahm C.C., Chiuve S.E., Quiros J.R., Buckland G., Molina-Montes E., Amiano P., Huerta Castano J.M., Gurrea A.B., Khaw K.T., Lentjes M.A., Key T.J., Romaguera D., Vergnaud A.C., Trichopoulou A., Bamia C., Orfanos P., Palli D., Pala V., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., de Magistris M.S., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Ocke M.C., Beulens J.W., Ericson U., Drake I., Nilsson L.M., Winkvist A., Weiderpass E., Hjartaker A., Riboli E., Slimani N.

PLoS ONE; 2014; 9(6): e98647

PMID:24901309

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR) data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N = 477,312). Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N = 34,436) provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC) 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived from FFQs in term of food sources. These outcomes open research opportunities and perspectives of using nutrient patterns in future studies particularly at international level

Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 in Relation to Renal Cell Carcinoma Incidence and Survival in the EPIC Cohort

Muller D.C., Fanidi A., Midttun O., Steffen A., Dossus L., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Severi G., Kuhn T., Katzke V., de la Torre R.A., Gonzalez C.A., Sanchez M.J., Dorronsoro M., Santiuste C., Barricarte A., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Travis R.C., Trichopoulou A., Giotaki M., Trichopoulos D., Palli D., Krogh V., Tumino R., Vineis P., Panico S., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Peeters P.H., Ljungberg B., Wennberg M., Weiderpass E., Murphy N., Riboli E., Ueland P.M., Boeing H., Brennan P., Johansson M.

Am J Epidemiol; 2014; 180(8): 810-820

PMID:25205830

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Normal renal function is essential for vitamin D metabolism, but it is unclear whether circulating vitamin D is associated with risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We assessed whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) was associated with risk of RCC and death after RCC diagnosis in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). EPIC recruited 385,747 participants with blood samples between 1992 and 2000. The current study included 560 RCC cases, 557 individually matched controls, and 553 additional controls. Circulating 25(OH)D3 was assessed by mass spectrometry. Conditional and unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Death after RCC diagnosis was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models and flexible parametric survival models. A doubling of 25(OH)D3 was associated with 28% lower odds of RCC after adjustment for season of and age at blood collection, sex, and country of recruitment (odds ratio = 0.72, 95% confidence interval: 0.60, 0.86; P = 0.0004). This estimate was attenuated somewhat after additional adjustment for smoking status at baseline, circulating cotinine, body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), and alcohol intake (odds ratio = 0.82, 95% confidence interval: 0.68, 0.99; P = 0.038). There was also some indication that both low and high 25(OH)D3 levels were associated with higher risk of death from any cause among RCC cases

Prediagnostic immunoglobulin E levels and risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, other lymphomas and multiple myeloma-results of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Nieters A., Luczynska A., Becker S., Becker N., Vermeulen R., Overvad K., Aleksandrova K., Boeing H., Lagiou P., Trichopoulos D., Trichopoulou A., Krogh V., Masala G., Panico S., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Bueno-de-Mesquita B., Jeurnink S.M., Weiderpass E., Ardanaz E., Chirlaque M.D., Sanchez M.J., Sanchez S., Borgquist S., Butt S., Melin B., Spath F., Rinaldi S., Brennan P., Kelly R.S., Riboli E., Vineis P., Kaaks R.

Carcinogenesis; 2014; 35(12): 2716-2722

PMID:25269801

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Previous epidemiological studies suggest an inverse association between allergies, marked by elevated immunoglobulin (Ig) E levels, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk. The evidence, however, is inconsistent and prospective data are sparse. We examined the association between prediagnostic total (low: <20; intermediate: 20-100; high >100 kU/l) and specific IgE (negative: <0.35; positive >/=0.35 kU/I) concentrations against inhalant antigens and lymphoma risk in a study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. A total of 1021 incident cases and matched controls of NHL, multiple myeloma (MM) and Hodgkin lymphoma with a mean follow-up time of 7 years were investigated. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by conditional logistic regression. Specific IgE was not associated with the risk of MM, B-cell NHL and B-cell NHL subtypes. In contrast, total IgE levels were inversely associated with the risk of MM [high level: OR = 0.40 (95% CI = 0.21-0.79)] and B-cell NHL [intermediate level: OR = 0.68 (95% CI = 0.53-0.88); high level: OR = 0.62 (95% CI = 0.44-0.86)], largely on the basis of a strong inverse association with chronic lymphocytic leukemia [CLL; intermediate level: OR = 0.49 (95% CI = 0.30-0.80); high level: OR = 0.13 (95% CI = 0.05-0.35)] risk. The inverse relationship for CLL remained significant for those diagnosed 5 years after baseline. The findings of this large prospective study demonstrated significantly lower prediagnostic total IgE levels among CLL and MM cases compared with matched controls. This corresponds to the clinical immunodeficiency state often observed in CLL patients prior to diagnosis. No support for an inverse association between prediagnostic levels of specific IgE and NHL risk was found

Plasma methionine, choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine in relation to colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Nitter M., Norgard B., de Vogel S., Eussen S.J., Meyer K., Ulvik A., Ueland P.M., Nygard O., Vollset S.E., Bjorge T., Tjonneland A., Hansen L., Boutron-Ruault M., Racine A., Cottet V., Kaaks R., Kuhn T., Trichopoulou A., Bamia C., Naska A., Grioni S., Palli D., Panico S., Tumino R., Vineis P., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., van Kranen H., Peeters P.H., Weiderpass E., Dorronsoro M., Jakszyn P., Sanchez M., Arguelles M., Huerta J.M., Barricarte A., Johansson M., Ljuslinder I., Khaw K., Wareham N., Freisling H., Duarte-Salles T., Stepien M., Gunter M.J., Riboli E.

Ann Oncol; 2014; 25(8): 1609-1615

PMID:24827130

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Disturbances in one carbon metabolism may contribute to carcinogenesis by affecting methylation and synthesis of DNA. Choline and its oxidation product betaine are involved in this metabolism and can serve as alternative methyl group donors when folate status is low. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), to investigate plasma concentrations of the methyl donors methionine, choline, betaine (trimethylglycine), and dimethylglycine (DMG) in relation to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Our study included 1367 incident CRC cases (965 colon and 402 rectum) and 2323 controls matched by gender, age group, and study center. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for CRC risk were estimated by conditional logistic regression, comparing the fifth to the first quintile of plasma concentrations. RESULTS: Overall, methionine (OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.63-0.99, P-trend = 0.05), choline (OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.60-0.99, P-trend = 0.07), and betaine (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.66-1.09, P-trend = 0.06) concentrations were inversely associated with CRC risk of borderline significance. In participants with folate concentration below the median of 11.3 nmol/l, high betaine concentration was associated with reduced CRC risk (OR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.50-1.00, P-trend = 0.02), which was not observed for those having a higher folate status. Among women, but not men, high choline concentration was associated with decreased CRC risk (OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.43-0.88, P-trend = 0.01). Plasma DMG was not associated with CRC risk. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with high plasma concentrations of methionine, choline, and betaine may be at reduced risk of CRC

Dietary intake of acrylamide and endometrial cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort

Obon-Santacana M., Kaaks R., Slimani N., Lujan-Barroso L., Freisling H., Ferrari P., Dossus L., Chabbert-Buffet N., Baglietto L., Fortner R.T., Boeing H., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Overvad K., Menendez V., Molina-Montes E., Larranaga N., Chirlaque M.D., Ardanaz E., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Travis R.C., Lu Y., Merritt M.A., Trichopoulou A., Benetou V., Trichopoulos D., Saieva C., Sieri S., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Galasso R., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Wirfalt E., Ericson U., Idahl A., Ohlson N., Skeie G., Gram I.T., Weiderpass E., Onland-Moret N.C., Riboli E., Duell E.J.

Br J Cancer; 2014; 111(5): 987-997

PMID:24937665

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Three prospective studies have evaluated the association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer (EC) risk with inconsistent results. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between acrylamide intake and EC risk: for overall EC, for type-I EC, and in never smokers and never users of oral contraceptives (OCs). Smoking is a source of acrylamide, and OC use is a protective factor for EC risk. METHODS: Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the association between acrylamide intake and EC risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Acrylamide intake was estimated from the EU acrylamide monitoring database, which was matched with EPIC questionnaire-based food consumption data. Acrylamide intake was energy adjusted using the residual method. RESULTS: No associations were observed between acrylamide intake and overall EC (n=1382) or type-I EC risk (n=627). We observed increasing relative risks for type-I EC with increasing acrylamide intake among women who both never smoked and were non-users of OCs (HRQ5vsQ1: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.08-3.62; likelihood ratio test (LRT) P-value: 0.01, n=203). CONCLUSIONS: Dietary intake of acrylamide was not associated with overall or type-I EC risk; however, positive associations with type I were observed in women who were both non-users of OCs and never smokers

Physical activity, sex steroid, and growth factor concentrations in pre- and post-menopausal women: a cross-sectional study within the EPIC cohort

Rinaldi S., Kaaks R., Friedenreich C.M., Key T.J., Travis R., Biessy C., Slimani N., Overvad K., Ostergaard J.N., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Mesrine S., Fournier A., Dossus L., Lukanova A., Johnson T., Boeing H., Vigl M., Trichopoulou A., Benetou V., Trichopoulos D., Masala G., Krogh V., Tumino R., Ricceri F., Panico S., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Monninkhof E.M., May A.M., Weiderpass E., Quiros J.R., Travier N., Molina-Montes E., Amiano P., Huerta J.M., Ardanaz E., Sund M., Johansson M., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Scalbert A., Gunter M.J., Riboli E., Romieu I.

Cancer Causes Control; 2014; 25(1): 111-124

PMID:24173534

Abstract as provided by PubMed

PURPOSE: Increased physical activity (PA) is associated with a reduced risk of several cancers. PA may reduce cancer risk by changing endogenous hormones levels, but relatively little research has focused on this topic. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relation between PA and endogenous hormone concentrations. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of 798 pre- and 1,360 post-menopausal women included as controls in case-control studies on endogenous hormones (steroids, progesterone, sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and growth factors) levels, and cancer risk nested within European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort was performed. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to compare geometric mean levels of hormones and SHBG by categories of PA. RESULTS: In pre-menopausal women, active women had 19 % significantly lower concentrations of androstenedione, 14 % lower testosterone, and 20 % lower free testosterone than inactive women, while no differences were observed for estrogens, progesterone, SHBG, and growth factors. In post-menopausal women, active women had 18 % significantly lower estradiol and 20 % lower free estradiol concentrations than inactive women, while no differences were observed for the other hormones and SHBG. More vigorous forms of physical activity were associated with higher insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations. Adjustment for body mass index did not alter the associations. Overall, the percentage of variance in hormone concentrations explained by PA levels was <2 %. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis of an influence, although small in magnitude, of PA on sex hormone levels in blood, independent of body size

Anthropometric measures and bladder cancer risk: A prospective study in the EPIC cohort

Roswall N., Freisling H., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Ros M., Christensen J., Overvad K., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Severi G., Fagherazzi G., Chang-Claude J., Kaaks R., Steffen A., Boeing H., Arguelles M., Agudo A., Sanchez M.J., Chirlaque M.D., Barricarte Gurrea A., Amiano P., Wareham N., Khaw K.T., Bradbury K.E., Trichopoulou A., Papatesta H.M., Trichopoulos D., Palli D., Pala V., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Mattiello A., Peeters P.H., Ehrnstrom R., Brennan P., Ferrari P., Ljungberg B., Norat T., Gunter M., Riboli E., Weiderpass E., Halkjaer J.

Int J Cancer; 2014; 135(12): 2918-2929

PMID:24771290

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Anthropometric measures have been related to risk of several cancers. For bladder cancer, however, evidence is sparse. Comparability of existing studies is hampered by use of different obesity-measures, inadequate control for smoking, and few female cases. This study examined associations between height, weight, waist and hip circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body mass index (BMI), recalled weight at age 20 and bladder cancer, and investigated effect modification by age, tumor aggressiveness and smoking. The study was conducted in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, in 390,878 participants. Associations were calculated using Cox Proportional Hazards Models. During follow-up, 1,391 bladder cancers (1,018 male; 373 female) occurred. Height was unrelated to bladder cancer in both genders. We found a small but significant positive association with weight [1.04 (1.01-1.07) per 5 kilo], BMI [1.05 (1.02-1.08) per 2 units], waist circumference [1.04 (1.01-1.08) per 5 cm], waist-hip ratio (1.07 (1.02-1.13) per 0.05 unit] and waist-height ratio [1.07 (1.01-1.13) per 0.05 unit] in men. Stratification by smoking status confined associations in men to former smokers. In never smokers, we found no significant associations, suggesting residual confounding by smoking. Results did not differ with tumor aggressiveness and age. Residual analyses on BMI/waist circumference showed a significantly higher disease risk with BMI in men (p = 0.01), but no association with waist circumference. In conclusion, in this large study, height was unrelated to bladder cancer, whereas overweight was associated with a slightly higher bladder cancer risk in men. This association may, however, be distorted by residual confounding by smoking

t(14;18) Translocation: A Predictive Blood Biomarker for Follicular Lymphoma

Roulland S., Kelly R.S., Morgado E., Sungalee S., Solal-Celigny P., Colombat P., Jouve N., Palli D., Pala V., Tumino R., Panico S., Sacerdote C., Quiros J.R., Gonzales C.A., Sanchez M.J., Dorronsoro M., Navarro C., Barricarte A., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Overvad K., Canzian F., Kaaks R., Boeing H., Drogan D., Nieters A., Clavel-Chapelon F., Trichopoulou A., Trichopoulos D., Lagiou P., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Peeters P.H., Vermeulen R., Hallmans G., Melin B., Borgquist S., Carlson J., Lund E., Weiderpass E., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Key T.J., Travis R.C., Ferrari P., Romieu I., Riboli E., Salles G., Vineis P., Nadel B.

J Clin Oncol; 2014; 32(13): 1347-1355

PMID:24687831

Abstract as provided by PubMed

PURPOSE: The (14;18) translocation constitutes both a genetic hallmark and critical early event in the natural history of follicular lymphoma (FL). However, t(14;18) is also detectable in the blood of otherwise healthy persons, and its relationship with progression to disease remains unclear. Here we sought to determine whether t(14;18)-positive cells in healthy individuals represent tumor precursors and whether their detection could be used as an early predictor for FL. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Among 520,000 healthy participants enrolled onto the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition) cohort, we identified 100 who developed FL 2 to 161 months after enrollment. Prediagnostic blood from these and 218 controls were screened for t(14;18) using sensitive polymerase chain reaction-based assays. Results were subsequently validated in an independent cohort (65 case participants; 128 controls). Clonal relationships between t(14;18) cells and FL were also assessed by molecular backtracking of paired prediagnostic blood and tumor samples. RESULTS: Clonal analysis of t(14;18) junctions in paired prediagnostic blood versus tumor samples demonstrated that progression to FL occurred from t(14;18)-positive committed precursors. Furthermore, healthy participants at enrollment who developed FL up to 15 years later showed a markedly higher t(14;18) prevalence and frequency than controls (P < .001). Altogether, we estimated a 23-fold higher risk of subsequent FL in blood samples associated with a frequency > 10(-4) (odds ratio, 23.17; 95% CI, 9.98 to 67.31; P < .001). Remarkably, risk estimates remained high and significant up to 15 years before diagnosis. CONCLUSION: High t(14;18) frequency in blood from healthy individuals defines the first predictive biomarker for FL, effective years before diagnosis

Smoking as a major risk factor for cervical cancer and pre-cancer: results from the EPIC cohort

Roura E., Castellsague X., Pawlita M., Travier N., Waterboer T., Margall N., Bosch F.X., de Sanjose S., Dillner J., Gram I.T., Tjonneland A., Munk C., Pala V., Palli D., Khaw K.T., Barnabas R.V., Overvad K., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Fagherazzi G., Kaaks R., Lukanova A., Steffen A., Trichopoulou A., Trichopoulos D., Klinaki E., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Panico S., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Peeters P.H., Lund E., Weiderpass E., Redondo M.L., Sanchez M.J., Tormo M.J., Barricarte A., Larranaga N., Ekstrom J., Hortlund M., Lindquist D., Wareham N., Travis R.C., Rinaldi S., Tommasino M., Franceschi S., Riboli E.

Int J Cancer; 2014; 135(2): 453-466

PMID:24338632

Abstract as provided by PubMed

A total of 308,036 women were selected from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study to evaluate the association between tobacco smoking and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 3 (CIN3)/carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC). At baseline, participants completed a questionnaire and provided blood samples. During a mean follow-up time of 9 years, 261 ICC cases and 804 CIN3/CIS cases were reported. In a nested case-control study, the baseline sera from 609 cases and 1,218 matched controls were tested for L1 antibodies against HPV types 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58, and antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Human Herpes Virus 2 (HHV-2). Cervical samples were not available for HPV-DNA analysis in this study. Multivariate analyses were used to estimate associations between smoking and risk of CIN3/CIS and ICC in the cohort and the case-control studies. In the cohort analyses smoking status, duration and intensity showed a two-fold increased risk of CIN3/CIS and ICC, while time since quitting was associated with a two-fold reduced risk. In the nested case-control study, consistent associations were observed after adjustment for HPV, CT and HHV-2 serostatus, in both HPV seronegative and seropositive women. Results from this large prospective study confirm the role of tobacco smoking as an important risk factor for both CIN3/CIS and ICC, even after taking into account HPV exposure as determined by HPV serology. The strong beneficial effect of quitting smoking is an important finding that will further support public health policies for smoking cessation

Dietary Intakes and Risk of Lymphoid and Myeloid Leukemia in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Saberi Hosnijeh F., Peeters P., Romieu I., Kelly R., Riboli E., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Fagherazzi G., Clavel-Chapelon F., Dossus L., Nieters A., Teucher B., Trichopoulou A., Naska A., Valanou E., Mattiello A., Sieri S., Parr C.L., Engeset D., Skeie G., Dorronsoro M., Barricarte A., Sanchez M.J., Ericson U., Sonestedt E., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Ros M.M., Travis R.C., Key T.J., Vineis P., Vermeulen R.

Nutr. Cancer; 2014; 66(1): 14-28

PMID:24279598

Abstract as provided by PubMed

The etiology of leukemias cannot entirely be explained by known risk factors, including ionizing radiation, benzene exposure, and infection with human T cell leukemia virus. A number of studies suggested that diet influences the risk of adult leukemias. However, results have been largely inconsistent. We examined the potential association between dietary factors and risk of leukemias among participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Among the 477,325 participants with mean follow-up of 11.34 yr (SD = 2.47), 773 leukemias (373 and 342 cases of lymphoid and myeloid leukemia, respectively) were identified. Diet over the previous 12 mo was assessed at baseline using a validated country-specific dietary questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to explore the association between dietary factors that have previously been associated with leukemia risk, including red and processed meat, poultry, offal, fish, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and seeds/nuts, and risk of both lymphoid and myeloid leukemias. No significant associations were observed between dietary measures and total, lymphoid, and myeloid leukemias. Additional subtype analyses showed no dietary association with risk of major subtypes of leukemias. In summary, this study did not support a possible link between selected dietary factors and risk of leukemias

Insulin-like growth factor-i and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

Schmidt J.A., Allen N.E., Almquist M., Franceschi S., Rinaldi S., Tipper S.J., Tsilidis K.K., Weiderpass E., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Dossus L., Mesrine S., Kaaks R., Lukanova A., Boeing H., Lagiou P., Trichopoulos D., Trichopoulou A., Palli D., Krogh V., Panico S., Tumino R., Zanetti R., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Peeters P.H., Lund E., Menendez V., Agudo A., Sanchez M.J., Chirlaque M.D., Ardanaz E., Larranaga N., Hennings J., Sandstrom M., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Romieu I., Gunter M.J., Riboli E., Key T.J., Travis R.C.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2014; 23(6): 976-985

PMID:24646451

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the causes of thyroid cancer, but insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) might play an important role in its development due to its mitogenic and antiapoptotic properties. METHODS: This study prospectively investigated the association between serum IGF-I concentrations and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. The 345 incident cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma were individually matched to 735 controls by study center, sex and age, date, time, and fasting status at blood collection, follow-up duration, and for women menopausal status, use of exogenous hormones, and phase of menstrual cycle at blood collection. Serum IGF-I concentrations were measured by immunoassay, and risk of differentiated thyroid cancer in relation to IGF-I concentration was estimated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: There was a positive association between IGF-I concentrations and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: the OR for a doubling in IGF-I concentration was 1.48 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.08; Ptrend = 0.02). The positive association with IGF-I was stable over time between blood collection and cancer diagnosis. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that IGF-I concentrations may be positively associated with risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. IMPACT: This study provides the first prospective evidence of a potential association between circulating IGF-I concentrations and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma and may prompt the further investigations needed to confirm the association

Smoking and Long-Term Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: The EPIC-InterAct Study in European Populations

Spijkerman A.M., van der A.DL, Nilsson P.M., Ardanaz E., Gavrila D., Agudo A., Arriola L., Balkau B., Beulens J.W., Boeing H., de Lauzon-Guillain B., Fagherazzi G., Feskens E.J., Franks P.W., Grioni S., Huerta J.M., Kaaks R., Key T.J., Overvad K., Palli D., Panico S., Redondo M.L., Rolandsson O., Roswall N., Sacerdote C., Sanchez M.J., Schulze M.B., Slimani N., Teucher B., Tjonneland A., Tumino R., van der Schouw Y.T., Langenberg C., Sharp S.J., Forouhi N.G., Riboli E., Wareham N.J.

Diabetes Care; 2014; 37(12): 3164-3171

PMID:25336749

Abstract as provided by PubMed

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to investigate the association between smoking and incident type 2 diabetes, accounting for a large number of potential confounding factors, and to explore potential effect modifiers and intermediate factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct is a prospective case-cohort study within eight European countries, including 12,403 cases of incident type 2 diabetes and a random subcohort of 16,835 individuals. After exclusion of individuals with missing data, the analyses included 10,327 cases and 13,863 subcohort individuals. Smoking status was used (never, former, current), with never smokers as the reference. Country-specific Prentice-weighted Cox regression models and random-effects meta-analysis were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: In men, the HRs (95% CI) of type 2 diabetes were 1.40 (1.26, 1.55) for former smokers and 1.43 (1.27, 1.61) for current smokers, independent of age, education, center, physical activity, and alcohol, coffee, and meat consumption. In women, associations were weaker, with HRs (95% CI) of 1.18 (1.07, 1.30) and 1.13 (1.03, 1.25) for former and current smokers, respectively. There was some evidence of effect modification by BMI. The association tended to be slightly stronger in normal weight men compared with those with overall adiposity. CONCLUSIONS: Former and current smoking was associated with a higher risk of incident type 2 diabetes compared with never smoking in men and women, independent of educational level, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and diet. Smoking may be regarded as a modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and smoking cessation should be encouraged for diabetes prevention

Weight change later in life and colon and rectal cancer risk in participants in the EPIC-PANACEA study

Steins Bisschop C.N., Van Gils C.H., Emaus M.J., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Monninkhof E.M., Boeing H., Aleksandrova K., Jenab M., Norat T., Riboli E., Boutron-Rualt M.C., Fagherazzi G., Racine A., Palli D., Krogh V., Tumino R., Naccarati A., Mattiello A., Arguelles M.V., Sanchez M.J., Tormo M.J., Ardanaz E., Dorronsoro M., Bonet C., Khaw K.T., Key T., Trichopoulou A., Orfanos P., Naska A., Kaaks R.R., Lukanova A., Pischon T., Ljuslinder I., Jirstrom K., Ohlsson B., Overvad K., Landsvig Berentzen T., Halkjaer J., Tjonneland A., Weiderpass E., Skeie G., Braaten T., Siersema P.D., Freisling H., Ferrari P., Peeters P.H., May A.M.

Am. J Clin Nutr; 2014; 99(1): 139-147

PMID:24225355

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: A moderate association exists between body mass index (BMI) and colorectal cancer. Less is known about the effect of weight change. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relation between BMI and weight change and subsequent colon and rectal cancer risk. DESIGN: This was studied among 328,781 participants in the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of Smoking, Eating study (mean age: 50 y). Body weight was assessed at recruitment and on average 5 y later. Self-reported weight change (kg/y) was categorized in sex-specific quintiles, with quintiles 2 and 3 combined as the reference category (men: -0.6 to 0.3 kg/y; women: -0.4 to 0.4 kg/y). In the subsequent years, participants were followed for the occurrence of colon and rectal cancer (median period: 6.8 y). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to study the association. RESULTS: A total of 1261 incident colon cancer and 747 rectal cancer cases were identified. BMI at recruitment was statistically significantly associated with colon cancer risk in men (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.07). Moderate weight gain (quintile 4) in men increased risk further (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.68), but this relation did not show a clear trend. In women, BMI or weight gain was not related to subsequent risk of colon cancer. No statistically significant associations for weight loss and colon cancer or for BMI and weight changes and rectal cancer were found. CONCLUSIONS: BMI attained at adulthood was associated with colon cancer risk. Subsequent weight gain or loss was not related to colon or rectal cancer risk in men or women

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21