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Search Result (493 REFERENCES)

2013

A structural equation modelling approach to explore the role of B vitamins and immune markers in lung cancer risk

Baltar V.T., Xun W.W., Johansson M., Ferrari P., Chuang S.C., Relton C., Ueland P.M., Midttun O., Slimani N., Jenab M., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Fagherazzi G., Kaaks R., Rohrmann S., Boeing H., Weikert C., Bueno-de-Mesquita B., Boshuizen H., Van Gils C.H., Onland-Moret N.C., Agudo A., Barricarte A., Navarro C., Rodriguez L., Castano J.M., Larranaga N., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Crowe F., Gallo V., Norat T., Krogh V., Masala G., Panico S., Sacerdote C., Tumino R., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Trichopoulos D., Rasmuson T., Hallmans G., Roswall N., Tjonneland A., Riboli E., Brennan P., Vineis P.

Eur. J Epidemiol; 2013; 28(8): 677-688

Abstract as provided by PubMed

The one-carbon metabolism (OCM) is considered key in maintaining DNA integrity and regulating gene expression, and may be involved in the process of carcinogenesis. Several B-vitamins and amino acids have been implicated in lung cancer risk, via the OCM directly as well as immune system activation. However it is unclear whether these factors act independently or through complex mechanisms. The current study applies structural equations modelling (SEM) to further disentangle the mechanisms involved in lung carcinogenesis. SEM allows simultaneous estimation of linear relations where a variable can be the outcome in one equation and the predictor in another, as well as allowing estimation using latent variables (factors estimated by correlation matrix). A large number of biomarkers have been analysed from 891 lung cancer cases and 1,747 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Four putative mechanisms in the OCM and immunity were investigated in relation to lung cancer risk: methionine-homocysteine metabolism, folate cycle, transsulfuration, and mechanisms involved in inflammation and immune activation, all adjusted for tobacco exposure. The hypothesized SEM model confirmed a direct and protective effect for factors representing methionine-homocysteine metabolism (p = 0.020) and immune activation (p = 0.021), and an indirect protective effect of folate cycle (p = 0.019), after adjustment for tobacco smoking. In conclusion, our results show that in the investigation of the involvement of the OCM, the folate cycle and immune system in lung carcinogenesis, it is important to consider complex pathways (by applying SEM) rather than the effects of single vitamins or nutrients (e.g. using traditional multiple regression). In our study SEM were able to suggest a greater role of the methionine-homocysteine metabolism and immune activation over other potential mechanisms

Mediterranean diet and colorectal cancer risk: results from a European cohort

Bamia C., Lagiou P., Buckland G., Grioni S., Agnoli C., Taylor A.J., Dahm C.C., Overvad K., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Cottet V., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Morois S., Grote V., Teucher B., Boeing H., Buijsse B., Trichopoulos D., Adarakis G., Tumino R., Naccarati A., Panico S., Palli D., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., van Duijnhoven F.J., Peeters P.H., Engeset D., Skeie G., Lund E., Sanchez M.J., Barricarte A., Huerta J.M., Quiros J.R., Dorronsoro M., Ljuslinder I., Palmqvist R., Drake I., Key T.J., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Romieu I., Fedirko V., Jenab M., Romaguera D., Norat T., Trichopoulou A.

Eur. J Epidemiol; 2013; 28(4): 317-328

Abstract as provided by PubMed

The authors investigated the association of adherence to Mediterranean diet with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition study. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was expressed through two 10-unit scales, the Modified Mediterranean diet score (MMDS) and the Centre-Specific MMDS (CSMMDS). Both scales share the same dietary components but differ in the cut-off values that were used for these components in the construction of the scales. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for the associations of these scales with CRC incidence were estimated. After 5,296,617 person-years of follow-up, 4,355 incident CRC cases were identified. A decreased risk of CRC, of 8 and 11 % was estimated when comparing the highest (scores 6-9) with the lowest (scores 0-3) adherence to CSMMDS and MMDS respectively. For MMDS the HR was 0.89 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.80, 0.99). A 2-unit increment in either Mediterranean scale was associated with a borderline statistically significant 3 to 4 % reduction in CRC risk (HR for MMDS: 0.96; 95 % CI: 0.92, 1.00). These associations were somewhat more evident, among women, were mainly manifested for colon cancer risk and their magnitude was not altered when alcohol was excluded from MMDS. These findings suggest that following a Mediterranean diet may have a modest beneficial effect on CRC risk

The association of pattern of lifetime alcohol use and cause of death in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

Bergmann M.M., Rehm J., Klipstein-Grobusch K., Boeing H., Schutze M., Drogan D., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Fagherazzi G., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Teucher B., Kaaks R., Trichopoulou A., Benetou V., Trichopoulos D., Palli D., Pala V., Tumino R., Vineis P., Beulens J.W., Redondo M.L., Duell E.J., Molina-Montes E., Navarro C., Barricarte A., Arriola L., Allen N.E., Crowe F.L., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Romaguera D., Wark P.A., Romieu I., Nunes L., Riboli E., Ferrari P.

Int. J Epidemiol; 2013; 42(6): 1772-1790

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence for an association between the pattern of lifetime alcohol use and cause-specific risk of death. METHODS: Multivariable hazard ratios were estimated for different causes of death according to patterns of lifetime alcohol consumption using a competing risks approach: 111 953 men and 268 442 women from eight countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study were included. Self-reported alcohol consumption at ages 20, 30, 40 or 50 years and at enrolment were used for the analysis; 26 411 deaths were observed during an average of 12.6 years of follow-up. RESULTS: The association between lifetime alcohol use and death from cardiovascular diseases was different from the association seen for alcohol-related cancers, digestive, respiratory, external and other causes. Heavy users (>5 drinks/day for men and >2.5 drinks/day for women), regardless of time of cessation, had a 2- to 5-times higher risk of dying due to alcohol-related cancers, compared with subjects with lifetime light use (</=1 and </=0.5 drink/week for men and women, respectively). Compared with lifetime light users, men who used <5 drinks/day throughout their lifetime had a 24% lower cardiovascular disease mortality (95% confidence interval 2-41). The risk of death from coronary heart disease was also found to be 34-46% lower among women who were moderate to occasionally heavy alcohol users compared with light users. However, this relationship was only evident among men and women who had no chronic disease at enrolment. CONCLUSIONS: Limiting alcohol use throughout life is associated with a lower risk of death, largely due to cardiovascular disease but also other causes. However, the potential health benefits of alcohol use are difficult to establish due to the possibility of selection bias and competing risks related to diseases occurring later in life

Age at menopause, reproductive life span, and type 2 diabetes risk: results from the EPIC-InterAct study

Brand J.S., van der Schouw Y.T., Onland-Moret N.C., Sharp S.J., Ong K.K., Khaw K.T., Ardanaz E., Amiano P., Boeing H., Chirlaque M.D., Clavel-Chapelon F., Crowe F.L., de Lauzon-Guillain B., Duell E.J., Fagherazzi G., Franks P.W., Grioni S., Groop L.C., Kaaks R., Key T.J., Nilsson P.M., Overvad K., Palli D., Panico S., Quiros J.R., Rolandsson O., Sacerdote C., Sanchez M.J., Slimani N., Teucher B., Tjonneland A., Tumino R., van der A.DL, Feskens E.J., Langenberg C., Forouhi N.G., Riboli E., Wareham N.J.

Diabetes Care; 2013; 36(4): 1012-1019

Abstract as provided by PubMed

OBJECTIVE: Age at menopause is an important determinant of future health outcomes, but little is known about its relationship with type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of menopausal age and reproductive life span (menopausal age minus menarcheal age) with diabetes risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were obtained from the InterAct study, a prospective case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A total of 3,691 postmenopausal type 2 diabetic case subjects and 4,408 subcohort members were included in the analysis, with a median follow-up of 11 years. Prentice weighted Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for age, known risk factors for diabetes, and reproductive factors, and effect modification by BMI, waist circumference, and smoking was studied. RESULTS: Mean (SD) age of the subcohort was 59.2 (5.8) years. After multivariable adjustment, hazard ratios (HRs) of type 2 diabetes were 1.32 (95% CI 1.04-1.69), 1.09 (0.90-1.31), 0.97 (0.86-1.10), and 0.85 (0.70-1.03) for women with menopause at ages <40, 40-44, 45-49, and >/=55 years, respectively, relative to those with menopause at age 50-54 years. The HR per SD younger age at menopause was 1.08 (1.02-1.14). Similarly, a shorter reproductive life span was associated with a higher diabetes risk (HR per SD lower reproductive life span 1.06 [1.01-1.12]). No effect modification by BMI, waist circumference, or smoking was observed (P interaction all > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Early menopause is associated with a greater risk of type 2 diabetes

Adherence to the mediterranean diet and risk of breast cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort study

Buckland G., Travier N., Cottet V., Gonzalez C.A., Lujan-Barroso L., Agudo A., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Trichopoulos D., Peeters P.H., May A., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Bvan Duijnhoven F.J., Key T.J., Allen N., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Romieu I., McCormack V., Boutron-Ruault M., Clavel-Chapelon F., Panico S., Agnoli C., Palli D., Tumino R., Vineis P., Amiano P., Barricarte A., Rodriguez L., Sanchez M.J., Chirlaque M.D., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Boeing H., Bergmann M.M., Overvad K., Dahm C.C., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Manjer J., Wirfalt E., Hallmans G., Johansson I., Lund E., Hjartaker A., Skeie G., Vergnaud A.C., Norat T., Romaguera D., Riboli E.

Int J Cancer; 2013; 132(12): 2918-2927

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Epidemiological evidence suggests that the Mediterranean diet (MD) could reduce the risk of breast cancer (BC). As evidence from the prospective studies remains scarce and conflicting, we investigated the association between adherence to the MD and risk of BC among 335,062 women recruited from 1992 to 2000, in ten European countries, and followed for 11 years on average. Adherence to the MD was estimated through an adapted relative Mediterranean diet (arMED) score excluding alcohol. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used while adjusting for BC risk factors. A total of 9,009 postmenopausal and 1,216 premenopausal first primary incident invasive BC were identified (5,862 estrogen or progesterone receptor positive [ER+/PR+] and 1,018 estrogen and progesterone receptor negative [ER-/PR-]). The arMED was inversely associated with the risk of BC overall and in postmenopausal women (high vs. low arMED score; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.94 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88, 1.00] ptrend = 0.048, and HR = 0.93 [95% CI: 0.87, 0.99] ptrend = 0.037, respectively). The association was more pronounced in ER-/PR- tumors (HR = 0.80 [95% CI: 0.65, 0.99] ptrend = 0.043). The arMED score was not associated with BC in premenopausal women. Our findings show that adherence to a MD excluding alcohol was related to a modest reduced risk of BC in postmenopausal women, and this association was stronger in receptor-negative tumors. The results support the potential scope for BC prevention through dietary modification

Hormonal, metabolic, and inflammatory profiles and endometrial cancer risk within the EPIC cohort--a factor analysis

Dossus L., Lukanova A., Rinaldi S., Allen N., Cust A.E., Becker S., Tjonneland A., Hansen L., Overvad K., Chabbert-Buffet N., Mesrine S., Clavel-Chapelon F., Teucher B., Chang-Claude J., Boeing H., Drogan D., Trichopoulou A., Benetou V., Bamia C., Palli D., Agnoli C., Galasso R., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., van Duijnhoven F.J., Peeters P.H., Onland-Moret N.C., Redondo M.L., Travier N., Sanchez M.J., Altzibar J.M., Chirlaque M.D., Barricarte A., Lundin E., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Fedirko V., Romieu I., Romaguera D., Norat T., Riboli E., Kaaks R.

Am J Epidemiol; 2013; 177(8): 787-799

Abstract as provided by PubMed

A "Western" lifestyle characterized by physical inactivity and excess weight is associated with a number of metabolic and hormonal dysregulations, including increased circulating estrogen levels, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and chronic inflammation. The same hormonal and metabolic axes might mediate the association between this lifestyle and the development of endometrial cancer. Using data collected within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a prospective cohort study carried out in 10 European countries during 1992-2000, we conducted a factor analysis to delineate important components that summarize the variation explained by a set of biomarkers and to examine their association with endometrial cancer risk. Prediagnostic levels of testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, sex hormone-binding globulin, estrone, estradiol, C-peptide, insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins 1 and 2, adiponectin, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, soluble TNF receptors 1 and 2, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist were measured in 233 incident endometrial cancer cases and 446 matched controls. Factor analysis identified 3 components associated with postmenopausal endometrial cancer risk that could be labeled "insulin resistance/metabolic syndrome,""steroids," and "inflammation" factors. A fourth component, "lipids," was not significantly associated with endometrial cancer. In conclusion, besides the well-known associations of risk with sex hormones and insulin-regulated physiological axes, our data further support the hypothesis that inflammation factors play a role in endometrial carcinogenesis

Vitamin C transporter gene (SLC23A1 and SLC23A2) polymorphisms, plasma vitamin C levels, and gastric cancer risk in the EPIC cohort

Duell E.J., Lujan-Barroso L., Llivina C., Munoz X., Jenab M., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Racine A., Boeing H., Buijsse B., Canzian F., Johnson T., Dalgard C., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Sanchez S.C., Sanchez-Cantalejo E., Huerta J.M., Ardanaz E., Dorronsoro M., Khaw K.T., Travis R.C., Trichopoulou A., Trichopoulos D., Rafnsson S., Palli D., Sacerdote C., Tumino R., Panico S., Grioni S., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Ros M.M., Numans M.E., Peeters P.H., Johansen D., Lindkvist B., Johansson M., Johansson I., Skeie G., Weiderpass E., Duarte-Salles T., Stenling R., Riboli E., Sala N., Gonzalez C.A.

Genes Nutr; 2013; 8(6): 549-560

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Vitamin C is known to protect mucosal tissues from oxidative stress and inhibit nitrosamine formation in the stomach. High consumption of fruits, particularly citrus, and higher circulating vitamin C concentrations may be inversely associated with gastric cancer (GC) risk. We investigated 20 polymorphisms in vitamin C transporter genes SCL23A1 and SCL23A2 and GC risk in 365 cases and 1,284 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. We also evaluated the association between these polymorphisms and baseline plasma vitamin C levels in a subset of participants. Four SNPs were predictors of plasma vitamin C levels (SLC23A1 rs11950646 and rs33972313; SLC23A2 rs6053005 and rs6133175) in multivariable linear regression models. One SNP (SLC23A2 rs6116569) was associated with GC risk, in particular non-cardia GC (OR = 1.63, 95 % CI = 1.11-2.39, based on 178 non-cardia cases), but this association was attenuated when plasma vitamin C was included in the logistic regression model. Haplotype analysis of SLC23A1 yielded no associations with GC. In SLC23A2, one haplotype was associated with both overall and non-cardia GC, another haplotype was associated with GC overall, and a third was associated with intestinal-type GC. Common variants in SLC23A1 and SLC23A2 may influence plasma vitamin C concentration independent of dietary intake, and variation in SLC23A2 may influence GC risk. Additional prospective studies in large populations and consortia are recommended. Investigation of variation in vitamin C transporter genes may shed light on the preventative properties of vitamin C in gastric carcinogenesis

Menstrual and reproductive factors in women, genetic variation in CYP17A1, and pancreatic cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort

Duell E.J., Travier N., Lujan-Barroso L., Dossus L., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Tumino R., Masala G., Krogh V., Panico S., Ricceri F., Redondo M.L., Dorronsoro M., Molina-Montes E., Huerta J.M., Barricarte A., Khaw K.T., Wareham N.J., Allen N.E., Travis R., Siersema P.D., Peeters P.H., Trichopoulou A., Fragogeorgi E., Oikonomou E., Boeing H., Schuetze M., Canzian F., Lukanova A., Tjonneland A., Roswall N., Overvad K., Weiderpass E., Gram I.T., Lund E., Lindkvist B., Johansen D., Ye W., Sund M., Fedirko V., Jenab M., Michaud D.S., Riboli E., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B.

Int J Cancer; 2013; 132(9): 2164-2175

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Menstrual and reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use have been investigated as pancreatic cancer risk factors in case-control and cohort studies, but results have been inconsistent. We conducted a prospective examination of menstrual and reproductive factors, exogenous hormone use and pancreatic cancer risk (based on 304 cases) in 328,610 women from the EPIC cohort. Then, in a case-control study nested within the EPIC cohort, we examined 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP17A1 (an essential gene in sex steroid metabolism) for association with pancreatic cancer in women and men (324 cases and 353 controls). Of all factors analyzed, only younger age at menarche (<12 vs. 13 years) was moderately associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer in the full cohort; however, this result was marginally significant (HR = 1.44; 95% CI = 0.99-2.10). CYP17A1 rs619824 was associated with HRT use (p value = 0.037) in control women; however, none of the SNPs alone, in combination, or as haplotypes were associated with pancreatic cancer risk. In conclusion, with the possible exception of an early age of menarche, none of the menstrual and reproductive factors, and none of the 12 common genetic variants we evaluated at the CYP17A1 locus makes a substantial contribution to pancreatic cancer susceptibility in the EPIC cohort

Age at Menarche and Type 2 Diabetes Risk: The EPIC-InterAct study

Elks C.E., Ong K.K., Scott R.A., van der Schouw Y.T., Brand J.S., Wark P.A., Amiano P., Balkau B., Barricarte A., Boeing H., Fonseca-Nunes A., Franks P.W., Grioni S., Halkjaer J., Kaaks R., Key T.J., Khaw K.T., Mattiello A., Nilsson P.M., Overvad K., Palli D., Quiros J.R., Rinaldi S., Rolandsson O., Romieu I., Sacerdote C., Sanchez M.J., Spijkerman A.M., Tjonneland A., Tormo M.J., Tumino R., van der A.DL, Forouhi N.G., Sharp S.J., Langenberg C., Riboli E., Wareham N.J.

Diabetes Care; 2013; 36(11): 3526-3534

Abstract as provided by PubMed

OBJECTIVE Younger age at menarche, a marker of pubertal timing in girls, is associated with higher risk of later type 2 diabetes. We aimed to confirm this association and to examine whether it is explained by adiposity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study consists of 12,403 incident type 2 diabetes cases and a stratified subcohort of 16,154 individuals from 26 research centers across eight European countries. We tested the association between age at menarche and incident type 2 diabetes using Prentice-weighted Cox regression in 15,168 women (n = 5,995 cases). Models were adjusted in a sequential manner for potential confounding and mediating factors, including adult BMI. RESULTS Mean menarcheal age ranged from 12.6 to 13.6 years across InterAct countries. Each year later menarche was associated with 0.32 kg/m(2) lower adult BMI. Women in the earliest menarche quintile (8-11 years, n = 2,418) had 70% higher incidence of type 2 diabetes compared with those in the middle quintile (13 years, n = 3,634), adjusting for age at recruitment, research center, and a range of lifestyle and reproductive factors (hazard ratio [HR], 1.70; 95% CI, 1.49-1.94; P < 0.001). Adjustment for BMI partially attenuated this association (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.18-1.71; P < 0.001). Later menarche beyond the median age was not protective against type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Women with history of early menarche have higher risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. Less than half of this association appears to be mediated by higher adult BMI, suggesting that early pubertal development also may directly increase type 2 diabetes risk

North-south gradients in plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and other components of one-carbon metabolism in Western Europe: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study

Eussen S.J., Nilsen R.M., Midttun O., Hustad S., IJssennagger N., Meyer K., Fredriksen A., Ulvik A., Ueland P.M., Brennan P., Johansson M., Bueno-de-Mesquita B., Vineis P., Chuang S.C., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Dossus L., Perquier F., Overvad K., Teucher B., Grote V.A., Trichopoulou A., Adarakis G., Plada M., Sieri S., Tumino R., de Magistris M.S., Ros M.M., Peeters P.H., Redondo M.L., Zamora-Ros R., Chirlaque M.D., Ardanaz E., Sonestedt E., Ericson U., Schneede J., Van Guelpen B., Wark P.A., Gallo V., Norat T., Riboli E., Vollset S.E.

Br. J Nutr; 2013; 110(2): 363-374

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Different lifestyle patterns across Europe may influence plasma concentrations of B-vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and their relation to chronic disease. Comparison of published data on one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions is difficult due to differences in sampling procedures and analytical methods between studies. The present study aimed, to compare plasma concentrations of one-carbon metabolites in Western European regions with one laboratory performing all biochemical analyses. We performed the present study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort among 5446 presumptively healthy individuals. Quantile regression was used to compare sex-specific median concentrations between Northern (Denmark and Sweden), Central (France, Germany, The Netherlands and United Kingdom) and Southern (Greece, Spain and Italy) European regions. The lowest folate concentrations were observed in Northern Europe (men, 10.4 nmol/l; women, 10.7 nmol/l) and highest concentrations in Central Europe. Cobalamin concentrations were slightly higher in Northern Europe (men, 330 pmol/l; women, 352 pmol/l) compared with Central and Southern Europe, but did not show a clear north-south gradient. Vitamin B(2) concentrations were highest in Northern Europe (men, 22.2 nmol/l; women, 26.0 nmol/l) and decreased towards Southern Europe (P trend< 0.001). Vitamin B(6) concentrations were highest in Central Europe in men (77.3 nmol/l) and highest in the North among women (70.4 nmol/l), with decreasing concentrations towards Southern Europe in women (P trend< 0.001). In men, concentrations of serine, glycine and sarcosine increased from the north to south. In women, sarcosine increased from Northern to Southern Europe. These findings may provide relevant information for the study of regional differences of chronic disease incidence in association with lifestyle

Alcohol drinking and endometrial cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

Fedirko V., Jenab M., Rinaldi S., Biessy C., Allen N.E., Dossus L., Onland-Moret N.C., Schutze M., Tjonneland A., Hansen L., Overvad K., Clavel-Chapelon F., Chabbert-Buffet N., Kaaks R., Lukanova A., Bergmann M.M., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Oustoglou E., Barbitsioti A., Saieva C., Tagliabue G., Galasso R., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Peeters P.H., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Weiderpass E., Gram I.T., Sanchez S., Duell E.J., Molina-Montes E., Arriola L., Chirlaque M.D., Ardanaz E., Manjer J., Lundin E., Idahl A., Khaw K.T., Romaguera-Bosch D., Wark P.A., Norat T., Romieu I.

Ann Epidemiol; 2013; 23(2): 93-98

Abstract as provided by PubMed

PURPOSE: Alcohol intake may adversely affect the concentrations of endogenous sex hormones, and thus increase the risk of endometrial cancer. However, epidemiologic studies have provided conflicting results. Therefore, we investigated the association between alcohol intake and endometrial cancer risk a large, multicenter, prospective study. METHODS: From 1992 through 2010, 301,051 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort were followed for incident endometrial cancer (n = 1382). Baseline alcohol consumption was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Information on past alcohol consumption was collected by lifestyle questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: The multivariable HRs (and 95% CIs) compared with light drinkers (0.1-6 g/d) were 1.03 (0.88-1.20) for 0 g of alcohol per day at baseline, 1.01 (0.86-1.17) for 6.1-12 g/d, 1.03 (0.87-1.22) for 12.1-24 g/d, 1.07 (0.87-1.38) for 24.1-36 g/d, and 0.85 (0.61-1.18) for more than 36 g/d (p(trend) = 0.77). No association was observed among former drinkers (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.98-1.68 compared with light drinkers). Null associations were also found between alcohol consumption at age 20 years, lifetime pattern of alcohol drinking, and baseline alcohol intake from specific alcoholic beverages and endometrial cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest no association between alcohol intake and endometrial cancer risk

Glycemic index, glycemic load, dietary carbohydrate, and dietary fiber intake and risk of liver and biliary tract cancers in Western Europeans

Fedirko V., Lukanova A., Bamia C., Trichopolou A., Trepo E., Nothlings U., Schlesinger S., Aleksandrova K., Boffetta P., Tjonneland A., Johnsen N.F., Overvad K., Fagherazzi G., Racine A., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Grote V., Kaaks R., Boeing H., Naska A., Adarakis G., Valanou E., Palli D., Sieri S., Tumino R., Vineis P., Panico S., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Siersema P.D., Peeters P.H., Weiderpass E., Skeie G., Engeset D., Quiros J.R., Zamora-Ros R., Sanchez M.J., Amiano P., Huerta J.M., Barricarte A., Johansen D., Lindkvist B., Sund M., Werner M., Crowe F., Khaw K.T., Ferrari P., Romieu I., Chuang S.C., Riboli E., Jenab M.

Ann. Oncol; 2013; 24(2): 543-553

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: The type and quantity of dietary carbohydrate as quantified by glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), and dietary fiber may influence the risk of liver and biliary tract cancers, but convincing evidence is lacking. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The association between dietary GI/GL and carbohydrate intake with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; N = 191), intrahepatic bile duct (IBD; N = 66), and biliary tract (N = 236) cancer risk was investigated in 477 206 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Dietary intake was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated from proportional hazard models. HBV/HCV status was measured in a nested case-control subset. RESULTS: Higher dietary GI, GL, or increased intake of total carbohydrate was not associated with liver or biliary tract cancer risk. For HCC, divergent risk estimates were observed for total sugar = 1.43 (1.17-1.74) per 50 g/day, total starch = 0.70 (0.55-0.90) per 50 g/day, and total dietary fiber = 0.70 (0.52-0.93) per 10 g/day. The findings for dietary fiber were confirmed among HBV/HCV-free participants [0.48 (0.23-1.01)]. Similar associations were observed for IBD [dietary fiber = 0.59 (0.37-0.99) per 10 g/day], but not biliary tract cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that higher consumption of dietary fiber and lower consumption of total sugars are associated with lower HCC risk. In addition, high dietary fiber intake could be associated with lower IBD cancer risk

Consumption of fish and meats and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Fedirko V., Trichopolou A., Bamia C., Duarte-Salles T., Trepo E., Aleksandrova K., Nothlings U., Lukanova A., Lagiou P., Boffetta P., Trichopoulos D., Katzke V.A., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Hansen L., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Fagherazzi G., Bastide N., Panico S., Grioni S., Vineis P., Palli D., Tumino R., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Peeters P.H., Skeie G., Engeset D., Parr C.L., Jakszyn P., Sanchez M.J., Barricarte A., Amiano P., Chirlaque M., Quiros J.R., Sund M., Werner M., Sonestedt E., Ericson U., Key T.J., Khaw K.T., Ferrari P., Romieu I., Riboli E., Jenab M.

Ann. Oncol; 2013; 24(8): 2166-2173

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: While higher intake of fish and lower consumption of red/processed meats have been suggested to play a protective role in the etiology of several cancers, prospective evidence for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is limited, particularly in Western European populations. METHODS: The associations of fish and meats with HCC risk were analyzed in the EPIC cohort. Between 1992 and 2010, 191 incident HCC were identified among 477 206 participants. Baseline diet was assessed using validated dietary questionnaires. A single 24-h diet recall from a cohort subsample was used for calibration. Multivariable proportional hazard regression was utilized to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). In a nested case-control subset (HCC = 122), HBV/HCV status and liver function biomarkers were measured. RESULTS: HCC risk was inversely associated with intake of total fish (per 20 g/day increase, HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.74-0.95 and HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.69-0.97 before and after calibration, respectively). This inverse association was also suggested after adjusting for HBV/HCV status and liver function score (per 20-g/day increase, RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.66-1.11 and RR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.50-1.09, respectively) in a nested case-control subset. Intakes of total meats or subgroups of red/processed meats, and poultry were not associated with HCC risk. CONCLUSIONS: In this large European cohort, total fish intake is associated with lower HCC risk

Dietary fiber intake and risk of hormonal receptor-defined breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

Ferrari P., Rinaldi S., Jenab M., Lukanova A., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Overvad K., Clavel-Chapelon F., Fagherazzi G., Touillaud M., Kaaks R., von Rusten A., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Benetou V., Grioni S., Panico S., Masala G., Tumino R., Polidoro S., Bakker M.F., Van Gils C.H., Ros M.M., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Krum-Hansen S., Engeset D., Skeie G., Pilar A., Sanchez M.J., Buckland G., Ardanaz E., Chirlaque D., Rodriguez L., Travis R., Key T., Khaw K.T., Wareham N.J., Sund M., Lenner P., Slimani N., Norat T., Aune D., Riboli E., Romieu I.

Am J Clin. Nutr; 2013; 97(2): 344-353

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Limited scientific evidence has characterized the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer (BC) by menopausal status and hormone receptor expression in tumors. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relation between total dietary fiber and its main food sources (vegetables, fruit, cereals, and legumes) and BC risk by using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). DESIGN: A total of 11,576 invasive BC cases in 334,849 EPIC women mostly aged 35-70 y at baseline were identified over a median follow-up of 11.5 y. Dietary fiber was estimated from country-specific dietary questionnaires. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to quantify the association between dietary variables and BC risk with energy adjustment by using the residual method. Subgroup analyses were performed by menopausal status and estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression in tumors. RESULTS: BC risk was inversely associated with intakes of total dietary fiber [hazard ratio comparing fifth quintile to first quintile (HR(Q5-Q1)): 0.95; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.01; P-trend = 0.03] and fiber from vegetables (0.90; 0.84, 0.96; P-trend < 0.01) but not with fiber from fruit, cereals, or legumes. Overall, associations were homogeneous by menopausal status and ER and PR expression in tumors. For vegetable fiber, stronger associations were observed for estrogen receptor-negative and progesterone receptor-negative (HR(Q5-Q1):0.74; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.93; P-trend = 0.01) than for estrogen receptor-positive and progesterone receptor-positive tumors (0.92: 0.81, 1.03; P-trend = 0.05), with P-heterogeneity = 0.09. CONCLUSION: Diets rich in dietary fiber and, particularly, fiber from vegetables may be associated with a small reduction in risk of BC, independently of menopausal status

Challenges in estimating the validity of dietary acrylamide measurements

Ferrari P., Freisling H., Duell E.J., Kaaks R., Lujan-Barroso L., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Nailler L., Polidoro S., Mattiello A., Palli D., Tumino R., Grioni S., Knuppel S., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Overvad K., Orfanos P., Katsoulis M., Trichopoulou A., Quiros J.R., Ardanaz E., Huerta J.M., Etxezarreta P.A., Sanchez M.J., Crowe F., Khaw K.T., Wareham N.J., Ocke M., Bueno-de-Mesquita B., Peeters P.H., Ericson U., Wirfalt E., Hallmans G., Johansson I., Engeset D., Nicolas G., Gallo V., Norat T., Riboli E., Slimani N.

Eur. J Nutr; 2013; 52(5): 1503-1512

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Acrylamide is a chemical compound present in tobacco smoke and food, classified as a probable human carcinogen and a known human neurotoxin. Acrylamide is formed in foods, typically carbohydrate-rich and protein-poor plant foods, during high-temperature cooking or other thermal processing. The objectives of this study were to compare dietary estimates of acrylamide from questionnaires (DQ) and 24-h recalls (R) with levels of acrylamide adduct (AA) in haemoglobin. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, acrylamide exposure was assessed in 510 participants from 9 European countries, randomly selected and stratified by age, sex, with equal numbers of never and current smokers. After adjusting for country, alcohol intake, smoking status, number of cigarettes and energy intake, correlation coefficients between various acrylamide measurements were computed, both at the individual and at the aggregate (centre) level. RESULTS: Individual level correlation coefficient between DQ and R measurements (r DQ,R) was 0.17, while r DQ,AA and r R,AA were 0.08 and 0.06, respectively. In never smokers, r DQ,R, r DQ,AA and r R,AA were 0.19, 0.09 and 0.02, respectively. The correlation coefficients between means of DQ, R and AA measurements at the centre level were larger (r > 0.4). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that estimates of total acrylamide intake based on self-reported diet correlate weakly with biomarker AA Hb levels. Possible explanations are the lack of AA levels to capture dietary acrylamide due to individual differences in the absorption and metabolism of acrylamide, and/or measurement errors in acrylamide from self-reported dietary assessments, thus limiting the possibility to validate acrylamide DQ measurements

Dietary acrylamide intake of adults in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition differs greatly according to geographical region

Freisling H., Moskal A., Ferrari P., Nicolas G., Knaze V., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Nailler L., Teucher B., Grote V.A., Boeing H., Clemens M., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Overvad K., Quiros J.R., Duell E.J., Sanchez M.J., Amiano P., Chirlaque M.D., Barricarte A., Khaw K.T., Wareham N.J., Crowe F.L., Gallo V., Oikonomou E., Naska A., Trichopoulou A., Palli D., Agnoli C., Tumino R., Polidoro S., Mattiello A., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Ocke M.C., Peeters P.H., Wirfalt E., Ericson U., Bergdahl I.A., Johansson I., Hjartaker A., Engeset D., Skeie G., Riboli E., Slimani N.

Eur. J Nutr; 2013; 52(4): 1369-1380

Abstract as provided by PubMed

PURPOSE: Methodological differences in assessing dietary acrylamide (AA) often hamper comparisons of intake across populations. Our aim was to describe the mean dietary AA intake in 27 centers of 10 European countries according to selected lifestyle characteristics and its contributing food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, 36 994 men and women, aged 35-74 years completed a single, standardized 24-hour dietary recall using EPIC-Soft. Food consumption data were matched to a harmonized AA database. Intake was computed by gender and center, and across categories of habitual alcohol consumption, smoking status, physical activity, education, and body mass index (BMI). Adjustment was made for participants' age, height, weight, and energy intake using linear regression models. RESULTS: Adjusted mean AA intake across centers ranged from 13 to 47 mug/day in men and from 12 to 39 mug/day in women; intakes were higher in northern European centers. In most centers, intake in women was significantly higher among alcohol drinkers compared with abstainers. There were no associations between AA intake and physical activity, BMI, or education. At least 50 % of AA intake across centers came from two food groups "bread, crisp bread, rusks" and "coffee." The third main contributing food group was "potatoes". CONCLUSIONS: Dietary AA intake differs greatly among European adults residing in different geographical regions. This observed heterogeneity in AA intake deserves consideration in the design and interpretation of population-based studies of dietary AA intake and health outcomes

Prediagnostic body fat and risk of death from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: the EPIC cohort

Gallo V., Wark P.A., Jenab M., Pearce N., Brayne C., Vermeulen R., Andersen P.M., Hallmans G., Kyrozis A., Vanacore N., Vahdaninia M., Grote V., Kaaks R., Mattiello A., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Peeters P.H., Travis R.C., Petersson J., Hansson O., Arriola L., Jimenez-Martin J.M., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Agnoli C., Sacerdote C., Bonet C., Trichopoulou A., Gavrila D., Overvad K., Weiderpass E., Palli D., Quiros J.R., Tumino R., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Barricante-Gurrea A., Fedirko V., Ferrari P., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Boeing H., Vigl M., Middleton L., Riboli E., Vineis P.

Neurology; 2013; 80(9): 829-838

Abstract as provided by PubMed

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate for the first time the association between body fat and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with an appropriate prospective study design. METHODS: The EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study included 518,108 individuals recruited from the general population across 10 Western European countries. At recruitment, information on lifestyle was collected and anthropometric characteristics were measured. Cox hazard models were fitted to investigate the associations between anthropometric measures and ALS mortality. RESULTS: Two hundred twenty-two ALS deaths (79 men and 143 women) occurred during the follow-up period (mean follow-up = 13 years). There was a statistically significant interaction between categories of body mass index and sex regarding ALS risk (p = 0.009): in men, a significant linear decrease of risk per unit of body mass index was observed (hazard ratio = 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.86-0.99 per kg/m(2)); among women, the risk was more than 3-fold increased for underweight compared with normal-weight women. Among women, a significant risk reduction increasing the waist/hip ratio was also evident: women in the top quartile had less than half the risk of ALS compared with those in the bottom quartile (hazard ratio = 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.25-0.93) with a borderline significant p value for trend across quartiles (p = 0.056). CONCLUSION: Increased prediagnostic body fat is associated with a decreased risk of ALS mortality

Fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight in European women and men

Jakobsen M.U., Dethlefsen C., Due K.M., May A.M., Romaguera D., Vergnaud A.C., Norat T., Sorensen T.I., Halkjaer J., Tjonneland A., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Fagherazzi G., Teucher B., Kuhn T., Bergmann M.M., Boeing H., Naska A., Orfanos P., Trichopoulou A., Palli D., Santucci de Magistris M., Sieri S., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., van derA D.L., Engeset D., Hjartaker A., Rodriguez L., Agudo A., Molina-Montes E., Huerta J.M., Barricarte A., Amiano P., Manjer J., Wirfalt E., Hallmans G., Johansson I., Khaw K.T., Wareham N.J., Key T.J., Chajes V., Slimani N., Riboli E., Peeters P.H., Overvad K.

Br J Nutr; 2013; 109(2): 353-362

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. Only a few human studies have investigated the association between fish consumption and body-weight gain. We investigated the association between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Women and men (n 344,757) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition were followed for a median of 5.0 years. Linear and logistic regression were used to investigate the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Among women, the annual weight change was 5.70 (95 % CI 4.35, 7.06), 2.23 (95 % CI 0.16, 4.31) and 11.12 (95 % CI 8.17, 14.08) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty fish consumption per d, respectively. The OR of becoming overweight in 5 years among women who were normal weight at enrolment was 1.02 (95 % CI 1.01, 1.02), 1.01 (95 % CI 1.00, 1.02) and 1.02 (95 % CI 1.01, 1.04) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty consumption per d, respectively. Among men, fish consumption was not statistically significantly associated with weight change. Adjustment for potential over- or underestimation of fish consumption did not systematically change the observed associations, but the 95 % CI became wider. The results in subgroups from analyses stratified by age or BMI at enrolment were not systematically different. In conclusion, the present study suggests that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain

Meat and heme iron intake and esophageal adenocarcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

Jakszyn P., Lujan-Barroso L., Agudo A., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Molina E., Sanchez M.J., Fonseca-Nunes A., Siersema P.D., Matiello A., Tumino R., Saieva C., Pala V., Vineis P., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Racine A., Bastide N., Travis R.C., Khaw K.T., Riboli E., Murphy N., Vergnaud A.C., Trichopoulou A., Valanou E., Oikonomidou E., Weiderpass E., Skeie G., Johansen D., Lindkvist B., Johansson M., Duarte-Salles T., Freisling H., Barricarte A., Huerta J.M., Amiano P., Tjonneland A., Overvad K., Kuehn T., Grote V., Boeing H., Peeters P.H., Gonzalez C.A.

Int. J Cancer; 2013; 133(11): 2744-2750

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Although recent studies suggest that high intakes of meat and heme iron are risk factors for several types of cancer, studies in relation to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are scarce. Previous results in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) based on a relatively small number of cases suggested a positive association between processed meat and EAC. In this study, we investigate the association between intake of different types of meats and heme iron intake and EAC risk in a larger number of cases from EPIC. The study included 481,419 individuals and 137 incident cases of EAC that occurred during an average of 11 years of follow-up. Dietary intake of meat (unprocessed/processed red and white meat) was assessed by validated center-specific questionnaires. Heme iron was calculated as a type-specific percentage of the total iron content in meat. After adjusting for relevant confounders, we observed a statistically significant positive association of EAC risk with heme iron and processed meat intake, with HR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.05-2.68 and HR: 2.27, 95% CI:1.33-3.89, respectively, for comparison of the highest vs. lowest tertile of intake. Our results suggest a potential association between higher intakes of processed meat and heme iron and risk of EAC

Evaluation of human papillomavirus antibodies and risk of subsequent head and neck cancer

Kreimer A.R., Johansson M., Waterboer T., Kaaks R., Chang-Claude J., Drogen D., Tjonneland A., Overvad K., Quiros J.R., Gonzalez C.A., Sanchez M.J., Larranaga N., Navarro C., Barricarte A., Travis R.C., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Trichopoulos D., Peeters P.H., Panico S., Masala G., Grioni S., Tumino R., Vineis P., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Laurell G., Hallmans G., Manjer J., Ekstrom J., Skeie G., Lund E., Weiderpass E., Ferrari P., Byrnes G., Romieu I., Riboli E., Hildesheim A., Boeing H., Pawlita M., Brennan P.

J Clin Oncol; 2013; 31(21): 2708-2715

Abstract as provided by PubMed

PURPOSE: Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) infection is causing an increasing number of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States and Europe. The aim of our study was to investigate whether HPV antibodies are associated with head and neck cancer risk when measured in prediagnostic sera. METHODS: We identified 638 participants with incident head and neck cancers (patients; 180 oral cancers, 135 oropharynx cancers, and 247 hypopharynx/larynx cancers) and 300 patients with esophageal cancers as well as 1,599 comparable controls from within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Prediagnostic plasma samples from patients (collected, on average, 6 years before diagnosis) and control participants were analyzed for antibodies against multiple proteins of HPV16 as well as HPV6, HPV11, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV45, and HPV52. Odds ratios (ORs) of cancer and 95% CIs were calculated, adjusting for potential confounders. All-cause mortality was evaluated among patients using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present in prediagnostic samples for 34.8% of patients with oropharyngeal cancer and 0.6% of controls (OR, 274; 95% CI, 110 to 681) but was not associated with other cancer sites. The increased risk of oropharyngeal cancer among HPV16 E6 seropositive participants was independent of time between blood collection and diagnosis and was observed more than 10 years before diagnosis. The all-cause mortality ratio among patients with oropharyngeal cancer was 0.30 (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.67), for patients who were HPV16 E6 seropositive compared with seronegative. CONCLUSION: HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present more than 10 years before diagnosis of oropharyngeal cancers

Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the risk of breast cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition: a nested case-control study

Kuhn T., Kaaks R., Becker S., Eomois P.P., Clavel-Chapelon F., Kvaskoff M., Dossus L., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Overvad K., Chang-Claude J., Lukanova A., Buijsse B., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Bamia C., Masala G., Krogh V., Sacerdote C., Tumino R., Mattiello A., Buckland G., Sanchez M.J., Menendez V., Chirlaque M.D., Barricarte A., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., van Duijnhoven F.J., Van Gils C.H., Bakker M.F., Weiderpass E., Skeie G., Brustad M., Andersson A., Sund M., Wareham N., Khaw K.T., Travis R.C., Schmidt J.A., Rinaldi S., Romieu I., Gallo V., Murphy N., Riboli E., Linseisen J.

Int. J Cancer; 2013; 133(7): 1689-1700

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Experimental evidence suggests that vitamin D might play a role in the development of breast cancer. Although the results of case-control studies indicate that circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is inversely associated with the risk of breast cancer, the results of prospective studies are inconsistent. A case-control study embedded in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) was carried out comprising 1,391 incident breast cancer cases and 1,391 controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models did not reveal a significant overall association between season-standardized 25(OH)D levels and the risk of breast cancer (ORQ4-Q1 [95% CI]: 1.07 [0.85-1.36], ptrend = 0.67). Moreover, 25(OH)D levels were not related to the risks of estrogen receptor positive tumors (ORQ4-Q1 [95% CI]: 0.97 [0.67-1.38], ptrend = 0.90) and estrogen receptor negative tumors (ORQ4-Q1 [95% CI]: 0.97 [0.66-1.42], ptrend = 0.98). In hormone replacement therapy (HRT) users, 25(OH)D was significantly inversely associated with incident breast cancer (ORlog2 [95% CI]: 0.62 [0.42-0.90], p = 0.01), whereas no significant association was found in HRT nonusers (ORlog2 [95% CI]: 1.14 [0.80-1.62], p = 0.48). Further, a nonsignificant inverse association was found in women with body mass indices (BMI) < 25 kg/m(2) (ORlog2 [95% CI]: 0.83 [0.67-1.03], p = 0.09), as opposed to a borderline significant positive association in women with BMI >/= 25 kg/m(2) (ORlog2 [95% CI]: 1.30 [1.0-1.69], p = 0.05). Overall, prediagnostic levels of circulating 25(OH)D were not related to the risk of breast cancer in the EPIC study. This result is in line with findings in the majority of prospective studies and does not support a role of vitamin D in the development of breast cancer

Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality: European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

Leenders M., Sluijs I., Ros M.M., Boshuizen H.C., Siersema P.D., Ferrari P., Weikert C., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Nailler L., Teucher B., Li K., Boeing H., Bergmann M.M., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Trichopoulos D., Palli D., Pala V., Panico S., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Peeters P.H., Van Gils C.H., Lund E., Engeset D., Redondo M.L., Agudo A., Sanchez M.J., Navarro C., Ardanaz E., Sonestedt E., Ericson U., Nilsson L.M., Khaw K.T., Wareham N.J., Key T.J., Crowe F.L., Romieu I., Gunter M.J., Gallo V., Overvad K., Riboli E., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B.

Am. J Epidemiol; 2013; 178(4): 590-602

Abstract as provided by PubMed

In this study, the relation between fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality was investigated within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition. Survival analyses were performed, including 451,151 participants from 10 European countries, recruited between 1992 and 2000 and followed until 2010. Hazard ratios, rate advancement periods, and preventable proportions to respectively compare risk of death between quartiles of consumption, to estimate the period by which the risk of death was postponed among high consumers, and to estimate proportions of deaths that could be prevented if all participants would shift their consumption 1 quartile upward. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was inversely associated with all-cause mortality (for the highest quartile, hazard ratio = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86, 0.94), with a rate advancement period of 1.12 years (95% CI: 0.70, 1.54), and with a preventable proportion of 2.95%. This association was driven mainly by cardiovascular disease mortality (for the highest quartile, hazard ratio = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.93). Stronger inverse associations were observed for participants with high alcohol consumption or high body mass index and suggested in smokers. Inverse associations were stronger for raw than for cooked vegetable consumption. These results support the evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a lower risk of death

Polymorphisms in genes related to one-carbon metabolism are not related to pancreatic cancer in PanScan and PanC4

Leenders M., Bhattacharjee S., Vineis P., Stevens V., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Shu X.O., Amundadottir L., Gross M., Tobias G.S., Wactawski-Wende J., Arslan A.A., Duell E.J., Fuchs C.S., Gallinger S., Hartge P., Hoover R.N., Holly E.A., Jacobs E.J., Klein A.P., Kooperberg C., Lacroix A., Li D., Mandelson M.T., Olson S.H., Petersen G., Risch H.A., Yu K., Wolpin B.M., Zheng W., Agalliu I., Albanes D., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Bracci P.M., Buring J.E., Canzian F., Chang K., Chanock S.J., Cotterchio M., Gaziano J.M., Giovanucci E.L., Goggins M., Hallmans G., Hankinson S.E., Hoffman-Bolton J.A., Hunter D.J., Hutchinson A., Jacobs K.B., Jenab M., Khaw K.T., Kraft P., Krogh V., Kurtz R.C., McWilliams R.R., Mendelsohn J.B., Patel A.V., Rabe K.G., Riboli E., Tjonneland A., Trichopoulos D., Virtamo J., Visvanathan K., Elena J.W., Yu H., Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A., Stolzenberg-Solomon R.Z.

Cancer Causes Control; 2013; 24(3): 595-602

Abstract as provided by PubMed

PURPOSE: The evidence of a relation between folate intake and one-carbon metabolism (OCM) with pancreatic cancer (PanCa) is inconsistent. In this study, the association between genes and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to OCM and PanCa was assessed. METHODS: Using biochemical knowledge of the OCM pathway, we identified thirty-seven genes and 834 SNPs to examine in association with PanCa. Our study included 1,408 cases and 1,463 controls nested within twelve cohorts (PanScan). The ten SNPs and five genes with lowest p values (<0.02) were followed up in 2,323 cases and 2,340 controls from eight case-control studies (PanC4) that participated in PanScan2. The correlation of SNPs with metabolite levels was assessed for 649 controls from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. RESULTS: When both stages were combined, we observed suggestive associations with PanCa for rs10887710 (MAT1A) (OR 1.13, 95 %CI 1.04-1.23), rs1552462 (SYT9) (OR 1.27, 95 %CI 1.02-1.59), and rs7074891 (CUBN) (OR 1.91, 95 %CI 1.12-3.26). After correcting for multiple comparisons, no significant associations were observed in either the first or second stage. The three suggested SNPs showed no correlations with one-carbon biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest genetic study to date to examine the relation between germline variations in OCM-related genes polymorphisms and the risk of PanCa. Suggestive evidence for an association between polymorphisms and PanCa was observed among the cohort-nested studies, but this did not replicate in the case-control studies. Our results do not strongly support the hypothesis that genes related to OCM play a role in pancreatic carcinogenesis

Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and lymphoma risk: results of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Luczynska A., Kaaks R., Rohrmann S., Becker S., Linseisen J., Buijsse B., Overvad K., Trichopoulou A., Valanou E., Barmpitsioti A., Masala G., Agnoli C., Tumino R., Panico S., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., van Duijnhoven F.J., Peeters P.H., Vermeulen R., Weiderpass E., Brustad M., Skeie G., Gonzalez C.A., Jakszyn P., Quiros J.R., Sanchez M.J., Huerta J.M., Ardanaz E., Melin B., Johansson A.S., Almquist M., Malm J., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Travis R.C., Fedirko V., Romieu I., Jenab M., Gallo V., Riboli E., Vineis P., Nieters A.

Am. J Clin Nutr; 2013; 98(3): 827-838

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: The relation between vitamin D status and lymphoma risk is inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between prediagnostic plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and lymphoid cancer risk. DESIGN: We conducted a study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort of 1127 lymphoma cases and 1127 matched controls with a mean follow-up time of 7.1 y. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted incidence rate ratios of lymphoma risk in relation to plasma 25(OH)D. Season-standardized and season-specific 25(OH)D quartiles were used. We also analyzed 25(OH)D as a continuous variable and used predefined cutoffs. RESULTS: No statistically significant association between plasma 25(OH)D and overall lymphoid cancer risk was observed. A positive association for B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma was noted only in those with a diagnosis made during the first 2 y of follow-up (P-heterogeneity = 0.03), which suggests the possibility of reverse causality. Further analysis restricted to participants with >/=2 y of follow-up time showed a significant association between 25(OH)D and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (n = 161): adjusted incidence rate ratios were 0.40 (95% CI: 0.18, 0.90; P-trend = 0.05) and 0.31 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.76; P-trend = 0.03) for the top compared with the bottom season-standardized and season-specific quartiles, respectively. Data on dietary vitamin D intake provided further support for the observed association (incidence rate ratio: 0.33; 95% CI = 0.12, 0.89; P-trend = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings do not support a protective role of high 25(OH)D concentration in lymphoid cancers overall. However, they suggest that higher concentrations of 25(OH)D are associated with a reduced risk of CLL

Plasma antibodies to oral bacteria and risk of pancreatic cancer in a large European prospective cohort study

Michaud D.S., Izard J., Wilhelm-Benartzi C.S., You D.H., Grote V.A., Tjonneland A., Dahm C.C., Overvad K., Jenab M., Fedirko V., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Racine A., Kaaks R., Boeing H., Foerster J., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Trichopoulos D., Sacerdote C., Sieri S., Palli D., Tumino R., Panico S., Siersema P.D., Peeters P.H., Lund E., Barricarte A., Huerta J.M., Molina-Montes E., Dorronsoro M., Quiros J.R., Duell E.J., Ye W., Sund M., Lindkvist B., Johansen D., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Travis R.C., Vineis P., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Riboli E.

Gut; 2013; 62(12): 1764-1770

Abstract as provided by PubMed

OBJECTIVE: Examine the relationship between antibodies to 25 oral bacteria and pancreatic cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. DESIGN: We measured antibodies to oral bacteria in prediagnosis blood samples from 405 pancreatic cancer cases and 416 matched controls, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Analyses were conducted using conditional logistic regression and additionally adjusted for smoking status and body mass index. RESULTS: Individuals with high levels of antibodies against Porphyromonas gingivalis ATTC 53978, a pathogenic periodontal bacteria, had a twofold higher risk of pancreatic cancer than individuals with lower levels of these antibodies (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.05 to 4.36; >200 ng/ml vs </=200 ng/ml). To explore the association with commensal (non-pathogenic) oral bacteria, we performed a cluster analysis and identified two groups of individuals, based on their antibody profiles. A cluster with overall higher levels of antibodies had a 45% lower risk of pancreatic cancer than a cluster with overall lower levels of antibodies (OR 0.55; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83). CONCLUSIONS: Periodontal disease might increase the risk for pancreatic cancer. Moreover, increased levels of antibodies against specific commensal oral bacteria, which can inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria, might reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. Studies are needed to determine whether oral bacteria have direct effects on pancreatic cancer pathogenesis or serve as markers of the immune response

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