You are here: Home

Search Result (493 REFERENCES)

2012

Total and high-molecular weight adiponectin and risk of colorectal cancer: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study

Aleksandrova K., Boeing H., Jenab M., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Jansen E., van Duijnhoven F.J., Fedirko V., Rinaldi S., Romieu I., Riboli E., Romaguera D., Westphal S., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Kaaks R., Lukanova A., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Trichopoulos D., Agnoli C., Mattiello A., Saieva C., Vineis P., Tumino R., Peeters P.H., Arguelles M., Bonet C., Sanchez M.J., Dorronsoro M., Huerta J.M., Barricarte A., Palmqvist R., Hallmans G., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Crowe F.L., Pischon T.

Carcinogenesis; 2012; 33(6): 1211-1218

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Adiponectin-an adipose tissue-derived protein-may provide a molecular link between obesity and colorectal cancer (CRC), but evidence from large prospective studies is limited. In particular, no epidemiological study explored high-molecular weight (HMW) and non-HMW adiponectin fractions in relation to CRC risk, despite them being hypothesized to have differential biological activities, i.e. regulating insulin sensitivity (HMW adiponectin) versus inflammatory response (non-HMW adiponectin). In a prospective, nested case-control study, we investigated whether prediagnostic serum concentrations of total, HMW and non-HMW adiponectin are associated with risk of CRC, independent of obesity and other known CRC risk factors. A total of 1206 incident cases (755 colon and 451 rectal) were matched to 1206 controls using incidence-density sampling. In conditional logistic regression, adjusted for dietary and lifestyle factors, total adiponectin and non-HMW adiponectin concentrations were inversely associated with risk of CRC [relative risk (RR) comparing highest versus lowest quintile = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53-0.95, P(trend) = 0.03 for total adiponectin and RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.34-0.61, P(trend) < 0.0001 for non-HMW adiponectin]. HMW adiponectin concentrations were not associated with CRC risk (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.68-1.22, P(trend) = 0.55). Non-HMW adiponectin was associated with CRC risk even after adjustment for body mass index and waist circumference (RR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.26-0.60, P(trend) < 0.0001), whereas the association with total adiponectin was no longer significant (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.60-1.09, P(trend) = 0.23). When stratified by cancer site, non-HMW adiponectin was inversely associated with both colon and rectal cancer. These findings suggest an important role of the relative proportion of non-HMW adiponectin in CRC pathogenesis. Future studies are warranted to confirm these results and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms

Alcohol consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in European men and women: influence of beverage type and body size The EPIC-InterAct study

Beulens J.W., van der Schouw Y.T., Bergmann M.M., Rohrmann S., Schulze M.B., Buijsse B., Grobbee D.E., Arriola L., Cauchi S., Tormo M.J., Allen N.E., van der A D.L., Balkau B., Boeing H., Clavel-Chapelon F., de Lauzon-Guillan B., Franks P., Froguel P., Gonzales C., Halkjaer J., Huerta J.M., Kaaks R., Key T.J., Khaw K.T., Krogh V., Molina-Montes E., Nilsson P., Overvad K., Palli D., Panico S., Ramon Quiros J., Ronaldsson O., Romieu I., Romaguera D., Sacerdote C., Sanchez M.J., Spijkerman A.M., Teucher B., Tjonneland A., Tumino R., Sharp S., Forouhi N.G., Langenberg C., Feskens E.J., Riboli E., Wareham N.J.

J Intern Med; 2012; 272(4): 358-370

Abstract as provided by PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes, and determine whether this is modified by sex, body mass index (BMI) and beverage type. DESIGN: Multicentre prospective case-cohort study. SETTING: Eight countries from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. SUBJECTS: A representative baseline sample of 16 154 participants and 12 403 incident cases of type 2 diabetes. INTERVENTIONS: Alcohol consumption assessed using validated dietary questionnaires. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Occurrence of type 2 diabetes based on multiple sources (mainly self-reports), verified against medical information. RESULTS: Amongst men, moderate alcohol consumption was nonsignificantly associated with a lower incidence of diabetes with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.90 (95% CI: 0.78-1.05) for 6.1-12.0 versus 0.1-6.0 g day(-1) , adjusted for dietary and diabetes risk factors. However, the lowest risk was observed at higher intakes of 24.1-96.0 g day(-1) with an HR of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.75-0.98). Amongst women, moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower incidence of diabetes with a hazard ratio of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.72-0.92) for 6.1-12.0 g day(-1) (P interaction gender <0.01). The inverse association between alcohol consumption and diabetes was more pronounced amongst overweight (BMI >/= 25 kg m(-2) ) than normal-weight men and women (P interaction < 0.05). Adjusting for waist and hip circumference did not alter the results for men, but attenuated the association for women (HR=0.90, 95% CI: 0.79-1.03 for 6.1-12.0 g day(-1) ). Wine consumption for men and fortified wine consumption for women were most strongly associated with a reduced risk of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes amongst women only. However, this risk reduction is in part explained by fat distribution. The relation between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes was stronger for overweight than normal-weight women and men

Coffee and tea consumption and the risk of ovarian cancer: a prospective cohort study and updated meta-analysis

Braem M.G., Onland-Moret N.C., Schouten L.J., Tjonneland A., Hansen L., Dahm C.C., Overvad K., Lukanova A., Dossus L., Floegel A., Boeing H., Clavel-Chapelon F., Chabbert-Buffet N., Fagherazzi G., Trichopoulou A., Benetou V., Goufa I., Pala V., Galasso R., Mattiello A., Sacerdote C., Palli D., Tumino R., Gram I.T., Lund E., Gavrilyuk O., Sanchez M.J., Quiros R., Gonzales C.A., Dorronsoro M., Castano J.M., Gurrea A.B., Idahl A., Ohlson N., Lundin E., Jirstrom K., Wirfalt E., Allen N.E., Tsilidis K.K., Kaw K.T., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Dik V.K., Rinaldi S., Fedirko V., Norat T., Riboli E., Kaaks R., Peeters P.H.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2012; 95(5): 1172-1181

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund Report concluded that there was limited and inconsistent evidence for an effect of coffee and tea consumption on the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). OBJECTIVE: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), we aimed to investigate whether coffee intakes, tea intakes, or both are associated with the risk of EOC. DESIGN: All women participating in the EPIC (n = 330,849) were included in this study. Data on coffee and tea consumption were collected through validated food-frequency questionnaires at baseline. HRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models. Furthermore, we performed an updated meta-analysis of all previous prospective studies until April 2011 by comparing the highest and lowest coffee- and tea-consumption categories as well as by using dose-response random-effects meta-regression analyses. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 11.7 y, 1244 women developed EOC. No association was observed between the risk of EOC and coffee consumption [HR: 1.05 (95% CI: 0.75, 1.46) for the top quintile compared with no intake] or tea consumption [HR: 1.07 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.45) for the top quintile compared with no intake]. This lack of association between coffee and tea intake and EOC risk was confirmed by the results of our meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: Epidemiologic studies do not provide sufficient evidence to support an association between coffee and tea consumption and risk of ovarian cancer

Multiple miscarriages are associated with the risk of ovarian cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Braem M.G., Onland-Moret N.C., Schouten L.J., Kruitwagen R.F., Lukanova A., Allen N.E., Wark P.A., Tjonneland A., Hansen L., Brauner C.M., Overvad K., Clavel-Chapelon F., Chabbert-Buffet N., Teucher B., Floegel A., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Adarakis G., Plada M., Rinaldi S., Fedirko V., Romieu I., Pala V., Galasso R., Sacerdote C., Palli D., Tumino R., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Gram I.T., Gavrilyuk O., Lund E., Sanchez M.J., Bonet C., Chirlaque M.D., Larranaga N., Gurrea A.B., Quiros J.R., Idahl A., Ohlson N., Lundin E., Jirstrom K., Butt S., Tsilidis K.K., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Riboli E., Kaaks R., Peeters P.H.

PLoS ONE; 2012; 7(5): e37141

Abstract as provided by PubMed

While the risk of ovarian cancer clearly reduces with each full-term pregnancy, the effect of incomplete pregnancies is unclear. We investigated whether incomplete pregnancies (miscarriages and induced abortions) are associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer. This observational study was carried out in female participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). A total of 274,442 women were followed from 1992 until 2010. The baseline questionnaire elicited information on miscarriages and induced abortions, reproductive history, and lifestyle-related factors. During a median follow-up of 11.5 years, 1,035 women were diagnosed with incident epithelial ovarian cancer. Despite the lack of an overall association (ever vs. never), risk of ovarian cancer was higher among women with multiple incomplete pregnancies (HR(>/=4vs.0): 1.74, 95% CI: 1.20-2.70; number of cases in this category: n = 23). This association was particularly evident for multiple miscarriages (HR(>/=4vs.0): 1.99, 95% CI: 1.06-3.73; number of cases in this category: n = 10), with no significant association for multiple induced abortions (HR(>/=4vs.0): 1.46, 95% CI: 0.68-3.14; number of cases in this category: n = 7). Our findings suggest that multiple miscarriages are associated with an increased risk of epithelial ovarian cancer, possibly through a shared cluster of etiological factors or a common underlying pathology. These findings should be interpreted with caution as this is the first study to show this association and given the small number of cases in the highest exposure categories

Sources of Pre-Analytical Variations in Yield of DNA Extracted from Blood Samples: Analysis of 50,000 DNA Samples in EPIC

Caboux E., Lallemand C., Ferro G., Hemon B., Mendy M., Biessy C., Sims M., Wareham N., Britten A., Boland A., Hutchinson A., Siddiq A., Vineis P., Riboli E., Romieu I., Rinaldi S., Gunter M.J., Peeters P.H., van der Schouw Y.T., Travis R., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Canzian F., Sanchez M.J., Skeie G., Olsen K.S., Lund E., Bilbao R., Sala N., Barricarte A., Palli D., Navarro C., Panico S., Redondo M.L., Polidoro S., Dossus L., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Trichopoulou A., Trichopoulos D., Lagiou P., Boeing H., Fisher E., Tumino R., Agnoli C., Hainaut P.

PLoS ONE; 2012; 7(7): e39821

Abstract as provided by PubMed

The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) is a long-term, multi-centric prospective study in Europe investigating the relationships between cancer and nutrition. This study has served as a basis for a number of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) and other types of genetic analyses. Over a period of 5 years, 52,256 EPIC DNA samples have been extracted using an automated DNA extraction platform. Here we have evaluated the pre-analytical factors affecting DNA yield, including anthropometric, epidemiological and technical factors such as center of subject recruitment, age, gender, body-mass index, disease case or control status, tobacco consumption, number of aliquots of buffy coat used for DNA extraction, extraction machine or procedure, DNA quantification method, degree of haemolysis and variations in the timing of sample processing. We show that the largest significant variations in DNA yield were observed with degree of haemolysis and with center of subject recruitment. Age, gender, body-mass index, cancer case or control status and tobacco consumption also significantly impacted DNA yield. Feedback from laboratories which have analyzed DNA with different SNP genotyping technologies demonstrate that the vast majority of samples (approximately 88%) performed adequately in different types of assays. To our knowledge this study is the largest to date to evaluate the sources of pre-analytical variations in DNA extracted from peripheral leucocytes. The results provide a strong evidence-based rationale for standardized recommendations on blood collection and processing protocols for large-scale genetic studies

Fiber intake and total and cause-specific mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort

Chuang S.C., Norat T., Murphy N., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Overvad K., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Perquier F., Dartois L., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Bergmann M.M., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Trichopoulos D., Grioni S., Sacerdote C., Panico S., Palli D., Tumino R., Peeters P.H., Bueno-de-Mesquita B., Ros M.M., Brustad M., Asli L.A., Skeie G., Quiros J.R., Gonzalez C.A., Sanchez M.J., Navarro C., Ardanaz Aicua E., Dorronsoro M., Drake I., Sonestedt E., Johansson I., Hallmans G., Key T., Crowe F., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Ferrari P., Slimani N., Romieu I., Gallo V., Riboli E., Vineis P.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2012; 96(1): 164-174

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that high fiber intake is associated with lower mortality. However, little is known about the association of dietary fiber with specific causes of death other than cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the relation between fiber intake, mortality, and cause-specific mortality in a large European prospective study of 452,717 men and women. DESIGN: HRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by age, sex, and center and adjusted for education, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, physical activity, total energy intake, and, in women, ever use of menopausal hormone therapy. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 12.7 y, a total of 23,582 deaths were recorded. Fiber intake was inversely associated with total mortality (HR(per 10-g/d increase): 0.90; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.92); with mortality from circulatory (HR(per 10-g/d increase): 0.90 and 0.88 for men and women, respectively), digestive (HR: 0.61 and 0.64), respiratory (HR: 0.77 and 0.62), and non-CVD noncancer inflammatory (HR: 0.85 and 0.80) diseases; and with smoking-related cancers (HR: 0.86 and 0.89) but not with non-smoking-related cancers (HR: 1.05 and 0.97). The associations were more evident for fiber from cereals and vegetables than from fruit. The associations were similar across BMI and physical activity categories but were stronger in smokers and participants who consumed >18 g alcohol/d. CONCLUSIONS: Higher fiber intake is associated with lower mortality, particularly from circulatory, digestive, and non-CVD noncancer inflammatory diseases. Our results support current recommendations of high dietary fiber intake for health maintenance

Fruit and vegetable intake and type 2 diabetes: EPIC-InterAct prospective study and meta-analysis

Cooper A.J., Forouhi N.G., Ye Z., Buijsse B., Arriola L., Balkau B., Barricarte A., Beulens J.W., Boeing H., Buchner F.L., Dahm C.C., de Lauzon-Guillain B., Fagherazzi G., Franks P.W., Gonzalez C., Grioni S., Kaaks R., Key T.J., Masala G., Navarro C., Nilsson P., Overvad K., Panico S., Ramon Quiros J., Rolandsson O., Roswall N., Sacerdote C., Sanchez M.J., Slimani N., Sluijs I., Spijkerman A.M., Teucher B., Tjonneland A., Tumino R., Sharp S.J., Langenberg C., Feskens E.J., Riboli E., Wareham N.J.

Eur J Clin Nutr; 2012; 66(10): 1082-1092

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the epidemiological evidence is inconclusive. The aim of this study is to examine the prospective association of FVI with T2D and conduct an updated meta-analysis. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-InterAct (EPIC-InterAct) prospective case-cohort study nested within eight European countries, a representative sample of 16,154 participants and 12,403 incident cases of T2D were identified from 340,234 individuals with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up. For the meta-analysis we identified prospective studies on FVI and T2D risk by systematic searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE until April 2011. In EPIC-InterAct, estimated FVI by dietary questionnaires varied more than twofold between countries. In adjusted analyses the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) comparing the highest with lowest quartile of reported intake was 0.90 (0.80-1.01) for FVI; 0.89 (0.76-1.04) for fruit and 0.94 (0.84-1.05) for vegetables. Among FV subtypes, only root vegetables were inversely associated with diabetes 0.87 (0.77-0.99). In meta-analysis using pooled data from five studies including EPIC-InterAct, comparing the highest with lowest category for FVI was associated with a lower relative risk of diabetes (0.93 (0.87-1.00)). Fruit or vegetables separately were not associated with diabetes. Among FV subtypes, only green leafy vegetable (GLV) intake (relative risk: 0.84 (0.74-0.94)) was inversely associated with diabetes. Subtypes of vegetables, such as root vegetables or GLVs may be beneficial for the prevention of diabetes, while total FVI may exert a weaker overall effect

Dietary fibre intake and ischaemic heart disease mortality: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Heart study

Crowe F.L., Key T.J., Appleby P.N., Overvad K., Schmidt E.B., Egeberg R., Tjonneland A., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Boeing H., Weikert C., Trichopoulou A., Ouranos V., Valanou E., Masala G., Sieri S., Panico S., Tumino R., Matullo G., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Boer J.M., Beulens J.W., van der Schouw Y.T., Quiros J.R., Buckland G., Sanchez M.J., Dorronsoro M., Huerta J.M., Moreno-Iribas C., Hedblad B., Jansson J.H., Wennberg P., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Ferrari P., Illner A.K., Chuang S.C., Norat T., Danesh J., Riboli E.

Eur J Clin Nutr; 2012; 66(8): 950-956

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Background/objectives:Evidence from prospective studies is consistent in showing an inverse association between dietary fibre intake and risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), but whether dietary fibre from various food sources differ in their effect on IHD risk is less clear. The objective of this study was to assess the associations of total and food sources of dietary fibre with IHD mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Heart study.Subjects/methods:Participants were 306 331 men and women from eight European countries. Dietary fibre intake was assessed using centre or country-specific diet questionnaires and calibrated using a 24-h diet recall.Results:After an average follow-up of 11.5 years, there were 2381 IHD deaths among participants without cardiovascular disease at baseline. The calibrated intake of dietary fibre was inversely related with IHD mortality; each 10 g/day was associated with a 15% lower risk (relative risk (RR) 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.99, P=0.031). There was no difference in the associations of the individual food sources of dietary fibre with the risk of IHD mortality; RR for each 5 g/day higher cereal fibre intake was 0.91 (CI: 0.82-1.01), RR for each 2.5 g/day fruit fibre intake was 0.94 (CI: 0.88-1.01) and RR for each 2.5 g/day vegetable fibre intake was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.76-1.07).Conclusion:A higher consumption of dietary fibre is associated with a lower risk of fatal IHD with no clear difference in the association with IHD for fibre from cereals, fruits or vegetables

Fatty acid patterns and risk of prostate cancer in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Dahm C.C., Gorst-Rasmussen A., Crowe F.L., Roswall N., Tjonneland A., Drogan D., Boeing H., Teucher B., Kaaks R., Adarakis G., Zylis D., Trichopoulou A., Fedirko V., Chajes V., Jenab M., Palli D., Pala V., Tumino R., Ricceri F., van Krane H., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Quiros J.R., Sanchez M.J., Lujan-Barroso L., Larranaga N., Chirlaque M.D., Ardanaz E., Johansson M., Stattin P., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Wark P.A., Norat T., Riboli E., Key T.J., Overvad K.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2012; 96(6): 1354-1361

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Fatty acids in blood may be related to the risk of prostate cancer, but epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent. Blood fatty acids are correlated through shared food sources and common endogenous desaturation and elongation pathways. Studies of individual fatty acids cannot take this into account, but pattern analysis can. Treelet transform (TT) is a novel method that uses data correlation structures to derive sparse factors that explain variation. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to gain further insight in the association between plasma fatty acids and risk of prostate cancer by applying TT to take data correlations into account. DESIGN: We reanalyzed previously published data from a case-control study of prostate cancer nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. TT was used to derive factors explaining the variation in 26 plasma phospholipid fatty acids of 962 incident prostate cancer cases matched to 1061 controls. Multiple imputation was used to deal with missing data in covariates. ORs of prostate cancer according to factor scores were determined by using multivariable conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Four simple factors explained 38% of the variation in plasma fatty acids. A high score on a factor reflecting a long-chain n-3 PUFA pattern was associated with greater risk of prostate cancer (OR for highest compared with lowest quintile: 1.36; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.86; P-trend = 0.041). CONCLUSION: Pattern analyses using TT groupings of correlated fatty acids indicate that intake or metabolism of long-chain n-3 PUFAs may be relevant to prostate cancer etiology

Genetic variation in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1A, ADH1B, ADH1C, ADH7) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), alcohol consumption and gastric cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort

Duell E.J., Sala N., Travier N., Munoz X., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Barricarte A., Arriola L., Navarro C., Sanchez-Cantalejo E., Quiros J.R., Krogh V., Vineis P., Mattiello A., Tumino R., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Peeters P.H., Numans M.E., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., van Oijen M.G., Bamia C., Benetou V., Trichopoulos D., Canzian F., Kaaks R., Boeing H., Bergmann M.M., Lund E., Ehrnstrom R., Johansen D., Hallmans G., Stenling R., Tjonneland A., Overvad K., Ostergaard J.N., Ferrari P., Fedirko V., Jenab M., Nesi G., Riboli E., Gonzalez C.A.

Carcinogenesis; 2012; 33(2): 361-367

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Studies that have examined the association between alcohol consumption and gastric cancer (GC) risk have been inconsistent. We conducted an investigation of 29 genetic variants in alcohol metabolism loci (alcohol dehydrogenase, ADH1 gene cluster: ADH1A, ADH1B and ADH1C; ADH7 and aldehyde dehydrogenase, ALDH2), alcohol intake and GC risk. We analyzed data from a nested case-control study (364 cases and 1272 controls) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using a customized array. We observed a statistically significant association between a common 3'-flanking SNP near ADH1A (rs1230025) and GC risk [allelic odds ratio (OR)(A v T) = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.59]. Two intronic variants, one in ADH1C (rs283411) and one in ALDH2 (rs16941667), also were associated with GC risk (OR(T v C) = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.38-0.91 and OR(T v C) = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.00-1.79, respectively). Individuals carrying variant alleles at both ADH1 (rs1230025) and ALDH2 (rs16941667) were twice as likely to develop GC (OR(A+T) = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.25-3.20) as those not carrying variant alleles. The association between rs1230025 and GC was modified by alcohol intake (<5 g/day: OR(A) = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.57-1.39; >/=5 g/day: OR(A) = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.08-1.94, P-value = 0.05). The association was also modified by ethanol intake from beer. A known functional SNP in ADH1B (rs1229984) was associated with alcohol intake (P-value = 0.04) but not GC risk. Variants in ADH7 were not associated with alcohol intake or GC risk. In conclusion, genetic variants at ADH1 and ALDH2 loci may influence GC risk, and alcohol intake may further modify the effect of ADH1 rs1230025. Additional population-based studies are needed to confirm our results

Identifying dietary patterns using a normal mixture model: application to the EPIC study

Fahey M.T., Ferrari P., Slimani N., Vermunt J.K., White I.R., Hoffmann K., Wirfalt E., Bamia C., Touvier M., Linseisen J., Rodriguez-Barranco M., Tumino R., Lund E., Overvad K., Bueno de Mesquita B., Bingham S., Riboli E.

J Epidemiol Community Health; 2012; 66(1): 89-94

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Finite mixture models posit the existence of a latent categorical variable and can be used for probabilistic classification. The authors illustrate the use of mixture models for dietary pattern analysis. An advantage of this approach is taking classification uncertainty into account. METHODS: Participants were a random sample of women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer. Food consumption was measured using dietary questionnaires. Mixture models identified latent classes in food consumption data, which were interpreted as dietary patterns. RESULTS: Among various assumptions examined, models allowing the variance of foods to vary within and between classes fit better than alternatives assuming constant variance (the K-means method of cluster analysis also makes the latter assumption). An eight-class model was best fitting and five patterns validated well in a second random sample. Patterns with lower classification uncertainty tended to be better validated. One pattern showed low consumption of foods despite being associated with moderate body mass index. CONCLUSION: Mixture modelling for dietary pattern analysis has advantages over both factor and cluster analysis. In contrast to these other methods, it is easy to estimate pattern prevalence, to describe patterns and to use patterns to predict disease taking classification uncertainty into account. Owing to substantial error in food consumptions, any analysis will usually find some patterns that cannot be well validated. While knowledge of classification uncertainty may aid pattern evaluation, any method will better identify patterns from food consumptions measured with less error. Mixture models may be useful to identify individuals who under-report food consumption

Prediagnostic 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, VDR and CASR Polymorphisms, and Survival in Patients with Colorectal Cancer in Western European Populations

Fedirko V., Riboli E., Tjonneland A., Ferrari P., Olsen A., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., van Duijnhoven F.J., Norat T., Jansen E.H., Dahm C.C., Overvad K., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Racine A., Lukanova A., Teucher B., Boeing H., Aleksandrova K., Trichopoulou A., Benetou V., Trichopoulos D., Grioni S., Vineis P., Panico S., Palli D., Tumino R., Siersema P.D., Peeters P.H., Skeie G., Brustad M., Chirlaque M.D., Barricarte A., Ramon Quiros J., Sanchez M.J., Dorronsoro M., Bonet C., Palmqvist R., Hallmans G., Key T.J., Crowe F., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Romieu I., McKay J., Wark P.A., Romaguera D., Jenab M.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2012; 21(4): 582-593

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Individuals with higher blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels have a lower risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), but the influence of 25(OH)D on mortality after CRC diagnosis is unknown. METHODS: The association between prediagnostic 25(OH)D levels and CRC-specific (N = 444) and overall mortality (N = 541) was prospectively examined among 1,202 participants diagnosed with CRC between 1992 and 2003 in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate HRs and corresponding 95% CIs according to 25(OH)D quintiles and genetic variation within the VDR and CASR genes. Potential dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic effect modifiers were also investigated. RESULTS: There were 541 deaths, 444 (82%) due to CRC. Mean follow-up was 73 months. In multivariable analysis, higher 25(OH)D levels were associated with a statistically significant reduction in CRC-specific (P(trend) = 0.04) and overall mortality (P(trend) = 0.01). Participants with 25(OH)D levels in the highest quintile had an adjusted HR of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.50-0.93) for CRC-specific mortality and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.50-0.88) for overall mortality, compared with the lowest quintile. Except for a possible interaction by prediagnostic dietary calcium intake (P(interaction) = 0.01), no other potential modifying factors related to CRC survival were noted. The VDR (FokI and BsmI) and CASR (rs1801725) genotypes were not associated with survival. CONCLUSIONS: High prediagnostic 25(OH)D levels are associated with improved survival of patients with CRC. Impact: Our findings may stimulate further research directed at investigating the effects of blood vitamin D levels before, at, and after CRC diagnosis on outcomes in CRC patients. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 21(4); 582-93. (c)2012 AACR

Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms, alcohol intake and the risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

Ferrari P., McKay J.D., Jenab M., Brennan P., Canzian F., Vogel U., Tjonneland A., Overvad K., Tolstrup J.S., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Morois S., Kaaks R., Boeing H., Bergmann M., Trichopoulou A., Katsoulis M., Trichopoulos D., Krogh V., Panico S., Sacerdote C., Palli D., Tumino R., Peeters P.H., Van Gils C.H., Bueno-de-Mesquita B., Vrieling A., Lund E., Hjartaker A., Agudo A., Suarez L.R., Arriola L., Chirlaque M.D., Ardanaz E., Sanchez M.J., Manjer J., Lindkvist B., Hallmans G., Palmqvist R., Allen N., Key T., Khaw K.T., Slimani N., Rinaldi S., Romieu I., Boffetta P., Romaguera D., Norat T., Riboli E.

Eur J Clin Nutr; 2012; 66(12): 1303-1308

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Heavy alcohol drinking is a risk factor of colorectal cancer (CRC), but little is known on the effect of polymorphisms in the alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) on the alcohol-related risk of CRC in Caucasian populations. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A nested case-control study (1269 cases matched to 2107 controls by sex, age, study centre and date of blood collection) was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate the impact of rs1229984 (ADH1B), rs1573496 (ADH7) and rs441 (ALDH2) polymorphisms on CRC risk. Using the wild-type variant of each polymorphism as reference category, CRC risk estimates were calculated using conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for matching factors. RESULTS: Individuals carrying one copy of the rs1229984(A) (ADH1B) allele (fast metabolizers) showed an average daily alcohol intake of 4.3 g per day lower than subjects with two copies of the rs1229984(G) allele (slow metabolizers) (P(diff)<0.01). None of the polymorphisms was associated with risk of CRC or cancers of the colon or rectum. Heavy alcohol intake was more strongly associated with CRC risk among carriers of the rs1573496(C) allele, with odds ratio equal to 2.13 (95% confidence interval: 1.26-3.59) compared with wild-type subjects with low alcohol consumption (P(interaction)=0.07). CONCLUSIONS: The rs1229984(A) (ADH1B) allele was associated with a reduction in alcohol consumption. The rs1229984 (ADH1B), rs1573496 (ADH7) and rs441 (ALDH2) polymorphisms were not associated with CRC risk overall in Western-European populations. However, the relationship between alcohol and CRC risk might be modulated by the rs1573496 (ADH7) polymorphism

Dietary reporting errors on 24 h recalls and dietary questionnaires are associated with BMI across six European countries as evaluated with recovery biomarkers for protein and potassium intake

Freisling H., van Bakel M.M., Biessy C., May A.M., Byrnes G., Norat T., Rinaldi S., Santucci de Magistris M., Grioni S., Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita H., Ocke M.C., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Vergnaud A.C., Romaguera D., Sacerdote C., Palli D., Crowe F.L., Tumino R., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Khaw K.T., Wareham N.J., Trichopoulou A., Naska A., Orfanos P., Boeing H., Illner A.K., Riboli E., Peeters P.H., Slimani N.

Br J Nutr; 2012; 107(6): 910-920

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Whether there are differences between countries in the validity of self-reported diet in relation to BMI, as evaluated using recovery biomarkers, is not well understood. We aimed to evaluate BMI-related reporting errors on 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR) and on dietary questionnaires (DQ) using biomarkers for protein and K intake and whether the BMI effect differs between six European countries. Between 1995 and 1999, 1086 men and women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition completed a single 24-HDR, a DQ and one 24 h urine collection. In regression analysis, controlling for age, sex, education and country, each unit (1 kg/m2) increase in BMI predicted an approximately 1.7 and 1.3 % increase in protein under-reporting on 24-HDR and DQ, respectively (both P < 0.0001). Exclusion of individuals who probably misreported energy intake attenuated BMI-related bias on both instruments. The BMI effect on protein under-reporting did not differ for men and women and neither between countries on both instruments as tested by interaction (all P>0.15). In women, but not in men, the DQ yielded higher mean intakes of protein that were closer to the biomarker-based measurements across BMI groups when compared with 24-HDR. Results for K were similar to those of protein, although BMI-related under-reporting of K was of a smaller magnitude, suggesting differential misreporting of foods. Under-reporting of protein and K appears to be predicted by BMI, but this effect may be driven by 'low-energy reporters'. The BMI effect on under-reporting seems to be the same across countries

Social inequalities and mortality in Europe--results from a large multi-national cohort

Gallo V., Mackenbach J.P., Ezzati M., Menvielle G., Kunst A.E., Rohrmann S., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Boeing H., Bergmann M.M., Tjonneland A., Dalton S.O., Overvad K., Redondo M.L., Agudo A., Daponte A., Arriola L., Navarro C., Gurrea A.B., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Key T., Naska A., Trichopoulou A., Trichopoulos D., Masala G., Panico S., Contiero P., Tumino R., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Siersema P.D., Peeters P.P., Zackrisson S., Almquist M., Eriksson S., Hallmans G., Skeie G., Braaten T., Lund E., Illner A.K., Mouw T., Riboli E., Vineis P.

PLoS ONE; 2012; 7(7): e39013

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Socio-economic inequalities in mortality are observed at the country level in both North America and Europe. The purpose of this work is to investigate the contribution of specific risk factors to social inequalities in cause-specific mortality using a large multi-country cohort of Europeans. METHODS: A total of 3,456,689 person/years follow-up of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) was analysed. Educational level of subjects coming from 9 European countries was recorded as proxy for socio-economic status (SES). Cox proportional hazard model's with a step-wise inclusion of explanatory variables were used to explore the association between SES and mortality; a Relative Index of Inequality (RII) was calculated as measure of relative inequality. RESULTS: Total mortality among men with the highest education level is reduced by 43% compared to men with the lowest (HR 0.57, 95% C.I. 0.52-0.61); among women by 29% (HR 0.71, 95% C.I. 0.64-0.78). The risk reduction was attenuated by 7% in men and 3% in women by the introduction of smoking and to a lesser extent (2% in men and 3% in women) by introducing body mass index and additional explanatory variables (alcohol consumption, leisure physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake) (3% in men and 5% in women). Social inequalities were highly statistically significant for all causes of death examined in men. In women, social inequalities were less strong, but statistically significant for all causes of death except for cancer-related mortality and injuries. DISCUSSION: In this European study, substantial social inequalities in mortality among European men and women which cannot be fully explained away by accounting for known common risk factors for chronic diseases are reported

Fruit and vegetable intake and the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma: A reanalysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST) study after a longer follow-up

Gonzalez C.A., Lujan-Barroso L., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Jenab M., Duell E.J., Agudo A., Tjonneland A., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Touillaud M., Teucher B., Kaaks R., Boeing H., Steffen A., Trichopoulou A., Roukos D., Karapetyan T., Palli D., Tagliabue G., Mattiello A., Tumino R., Ricceri F., Siersema P.D., Numans M.E., Peeters P.P., Parr C.L., Skeie G., Lund E., Quiros J.R., Sanchez-Cantalejo E., Navarro C., Barricarte A., Dorronsoro M., Ehrnstrom R., Regner S., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Key T.J., Crowe F.L., Blaker H., Romieu I., Riboli E.

Int J Cancer; 2012; 131(12): 2910-2919

Abstract as provided by PubMed

In a previous European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) analysis, we found an inverse association between total intake of vegetables, onion and garlic, and risk of intestinal gastric cancer (GC) and between citrus fruit and risk of cardia GC. The aim of this study is to reanalyze the effect of fruit and vegetables (F&V), based on a longer follow-up and twice the number of GC cases. Subjects are 477,312 men and women mostly aged 35 to 70 years participating in the EPIC cohort, including 683 gastric adenocarcinomas with 11 years of follow-up. Information on diet and lifestyle was collected at baseline. A calibration study in a subsample was used to correct for dietary measurement errors. When comparing the highest vs. lowest quintile of intake, we found an inverse association between total intake of V&F and GC risk [hazard ratio (HR) 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57-1.04; p for trend 0.02], between fresh fruit and risk of the diffuse type (HR 0.59; 95% CI 0.36-0.97; p for trend 0.03) and an inverse association between citrus fruit and risk of cardia cancer (HR 0.61; 95% CI 0.38-1.00, p for trend 0.01). Although calibration revealed somewhat stronger inverse associations, none of the risks reached statistical significance. There was no association between total or specific vegetables intake and GC risk. The inverse association between fresh fruit and citrus fruits and risk of GC seems to be restricted to smokers and the Northern European countries. Fresh fruit and citrus fruit consumption may protect against diffuse and cardia GC, respectively

Cigarette smoking and risk of histological subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer in the EPIC cohort study

Gram I.T., Lukanova A., Brill I., Braaten T., Lund E., Lundin E., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Clavel-Chapelon F., Chabbert-Buffet N., Bamia C., Trichopoulou A., Zylis D., Masala G., Berrino F., Galasso R., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Gavrilyuk O., Kristiansen S., Rodriguez L., Bonet C., Huerta J.M., Barricarte A., Sanchez M.J., Dorronsoro M., Jirstrom K., Almquist M., Idahl A., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Braem M., Onland-Moret C., Tsilidis K.K., Allen N.E., Fedirko V., Riboli E., Kaaks R.

Int J Cancer; 2012; 130(9): 2204-2210

Abstract as provided by PubMed

New data regarding a positive association between smoking and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), especially the mucinous tumor type, has started to emerge. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between different measures of smoking exposures and subtypes of EOC in a large cohort of women from 10 European countries. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort is a multicenter prospective study initiated in 1992. The questionnaires included data about dietary, lifestyle, and health factors. Information about cigarette smoking was collected from individuals in all participating countries. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate hazard ratio (HR) of EOC overall and serous, mucinous, and endometroid histological subtypes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with different measures of smoking exposures adjusting for confounding variables. Altogether 836 incident EOC cases were identified among 326,831 women. The tumors were classified as 400 serous, 83 mucinous, 80 endometroid, 35 clear cell, and 238 unspecified. Compared with never smokers, current smokers had a significantly increased risk for mucinous tumors [HR = 1.85 (95% CI 1.08-3.16)] and those smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day had a doubling in risk [HR = 2.25(95% CI 1.26-4.03)] as did those who had smoked less than 15 pack-years of cigarettes [HR = 2.18 (95% CI 1.07-4.43)]. The results from the EPIC study add further evidence that smoking increases risk of mucinous ovarian cancer and support the notion that the effect of smoking varies according to histological subtype

Inflammation marker and risk of pancreatic cancer: a nested case-control study within the EPIC cohort

Grote V.A., Kaaks R., Nieters A., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Overvad K., Skjelbo Nielsen M.R., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Racine A., Teucher B., Becker S., Pischon T., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Cassapa C., Stratigakou V., Palli D., Krogh V., Tumino R., Vineis P., Panico S., Rodriguez L., Duell E.J., Sanchez M.J., Dorronsoro M., Navarro C., Gurrea A.B., Siersema P.D., Hm Peeters P., Ye W., Sund M., Lindkvist B., Johansen D., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Travis R.C., Fedirko V., Jenab M., Michaud D.S., Chuang S.C., Romaguera D., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Rohrmann S.

Br J Cancer; 2012; 106(11): 1866-1874

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Background:Established risk factors for pancreatic cancer include smoking, long-standing diabetes, high body fatness, and chronic pancreatitis, all of which can be characterised by aspects of inflammatory processes. However, prospective studies investigating the relation between inflammatory markers and pancreatic cancer risk are scarce.Methods:We conducted a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, measuring prediagnostic blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble receptors of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (sTNF-R1, R2) in 455 pancreatic cancer cases and 455 matched controls. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression models.Results:None of the inflammatory markers were significantly associated with risk of pancreatic cancer overall, although a borderline significant association was observed for higher circulating sTNF-R2 (crude OR=1.52 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-2.39), highest vs lowest quartile). In women, however, higher sTNF-R1 levels were significantly associated with risk of pancreatic cancer (crude OR=1.97 (95% CI 1.02-3.79)). For sTNF-R2, risk associations seemed to be stronger for diabetic individuals and those with a higher BMI.Conclusion:Prospectively, CRP and IL-6 do not seem to have a role in our study with respect to risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas sTNF-R1 seemed to be a risk factor in women and sTNF-R2 might be a mediator in the risk relationship between overweight and diabetes with pancreatic cancer. Further large prospective studies are needed to clarify the role of proinflammatory proteins and cytokines in the pathogenesis of exocrine pancreatic cancer

The associations of advanced glycation end products and its soluble receptor with pancreatic cancer risk: a case-control study within the prospective EPIC Cohort

Grote V.A., Nieters A., Kaaks R., Tjonneland A., Roswall N., Overvad K., Nielsen M.R., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Racine A., Teucher B., Lukanova A., Boeing H., Drogan D., Trichopoulou A., Trichopoulos D., Lagiou P., Palli D., Sieri S., Tumino R., Vineis P., Mattiello A., Arguelles Suarez M.V., Duell E.J., Sanchez M.J., Dorronsoro M., Huerta Castano J.M., Barricarte A., Jeurnink S.M., Peeters P.H., Sund M., Ye W., Regner S., Lindkvist B., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Crowe F.L., Fedirko V., Jenab M., Romaguera D., Siddiq A., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Rohrmann S.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2012; 21(4): 619-628

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end products (AGE) and their receptors (RAGE) have been implicated in cancer development through their proinflammatory capabilities. However, prospective data on their association with cancer of specific sites, including pancreatic cancer, are limited. METHODS: Prediagnostic blood levels of the AGE product Nepsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and the endogenous secreted receptor for AGE (esRAGE) were measured using ELISA in 454 patients with exocrine pancreatic cancer and individually matched controls within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Pancreatic cancer risk was estimated by calculating ORs with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Elevated CML levels tended to be associated with a reduction in pancreatic cancer risk [OR = 0.57 (95% CI, 0.32-1.01) comparing highest with lowest quintile), whereas no association was observed for esRAGE (OR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.62-1.54). Adjustments for body mass index and smoking attenuated the inverse associations of CML with pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.41-1.49). There was an inverse association between esRAGE and risk of pancreatic cancer for cases that were diagnosed within the first 2 years of follow-up [OR = 0.46 (95% CI, 0.22-0.96) for a doubling in concentration], whereas there was no association among those with a longer follow-up (OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.88-1.39; P(interaction) = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPACT: Our results do not provide evidence for an association of higher CML or lower esRAGE levels with risk of pancreatic cancer. The role of AGE/RAGE in pancreatic cancer would benefit from further investigations

The association of circulating adiponectin levels with pancreatic cancer risk: a study within the prospective EPIC cohort

Grote V.A., Rohrmann S., Dossus L., Nieters A., Halkjaer J., Tjonneland A., Overvad K., Stegger J., Chabbert-Buffet N., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Teucher B., Becker S., Montonen J., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Trichopoulos D., Palli D., Sieri S., Tumino R., Vineis P., Mattiello A., Arguelles M., Duell E.J., Molina-Montes E., Larranaga N., Chirlaque M.D., Gurrea A.B., Jeurnink S.M., Peeters P.H., Ye W., Sund M., Lindkvist B., Johansen D., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Crowe F.L., Romieu I., Rinaldi S., Jenab M., Romaguera D., Michaud D.S., Riboli E., Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita H., Kaaks R.

Int J Cancer; 2012; 130(10): 2428-2437

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Excess body weight and type 2 diabetes mellitus, risk factors of pancreatic cancer, are characterized by decreased levels of adiponectin. In addition to anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative actions, adiponectin has an important role in regulating glucose metabolism, i.e., decreasing circulating blood glucose levels. Prospectively, hyperglycemia has been associated with risk of pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of pre-diagnostic adiponectin levels with pancreatic cancer risk. We conducted a case-control study nested within European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Blood samples of 452 pancreatic cancer cases and 452 individually matched controls were analyzed by immunoassays. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Overall, adiponectin showed no association with pancreas cancer risk; however, among never smokers, higher circulating levels of adiponectin were associated with a reduction in pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 0.44 [95% CI 0.23-0.82] for highest vs. lowest quartile), whereas among current smokers there was no significant association (OR = 1.59 [95% CI 0.67-3.76] for highest vs. lowest quartile; p-trend = 0.530; p-interaction = 0.309). In our study, lower adiponectin concentrations may be associated with the development of pancreatic cancer among never smokers, whereas the only other prospective study being conducted so far showed a decrease in risk among male smokers. Therefore, further studies are needed to clarify the role of adiponectin in pancreatic cancer development

A risk model for lung cancer incidence

Hoggart C., Brennan P., Tjonneland A., Vogel U., Overvad K., Ostergaard J.N., Kaaks R., Canzian F., Boeing H., Steffen A., Trichopoulou A., Bamia C., Trichopoulos D., Johansson M., Palli D., Krogh V., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Panico S., Boshuizen H., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Peeters P.H., Lund E., Gram I.T., Braaten T., Rodriguez L., Agudo A., Sanchez-Cantalejo E., Arriola L., Chirlaque M.D., Barricarte A., Rasmuson T., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Riboli E., Vineis P.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila); 2012; 5(6): 834-846

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Risk models for lung cancer incidence would be useful for prioritizing individuals for screening and participation in clinical trials of chemoprevention. We present a risk model for lung cancer built using prospective cohort data from a general population which predicts individual incidence in a given time period. We build separate risk models for current and former smokers using 169,035 ever smokers from the multicenter European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and considered a model for never smokers. The data set was split into independent training and test sets. Lung cancer incidence was modeled using survival analysis, stratifying by age started smoking, and for former smokers, also smoking duration. Other risk factors considered were smoking intensity, 10 occupational/environmental exposures previously implicated with lung cancer, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms at two loci identified by genome-wide association studies of lung cancer. Individual risk in the test set was measured by the predicted probability of lung cancer incidence in the year preceding last follow-up time, predictive accuracy was measured by the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). Using smoking information alone gave good predictive accuracy: the AUC and 95% confidence interval in ever smokers was 0.843 (0.810-0.875), the Bach model applied to the same data gave an AUC of 0.775 (0.737-0.813). Other risk factors had negligible effect on the AUC, including never smokers for whom prediction was poor. Our model is generalizable and straightforward to implement. Its accuracy can be attributed to its modeling of lifetime exposure to smoking. Cancer Prev Res; 5(6); 834-46. (c)2012 AACR

Validity of a short questionnaire to assess physical activity in 10 European countries

InterAct Consortium

Eur J Epidemiol; 2012; 27(1): 15-25

Abstract as provided by PubMed

To accurately examine associations of physical activity (PA) with disease outcomes, a valid method of assessing free-living activity is required. We examined the validity of a brief PA questionnaire (PAQ) used in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). PA energy expenditure (PAEE) and time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured in 1,941 healthy individuals from 10 European countries using individually-calibrated combined heart-rate and movement sensing. Participants also completed the short EPIC-PAQ, which refers to past year's activity. Pearson (r) and Spearman (sigma) correlation coefficients were calculated for each country, and random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate the combined correlation across countries to estimate the validity of two previously- and one newly-derived ordered, categorical PA indices ("Cambridge index", "total PA index", and "recreational index") that categorized individuals as inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, or active. The strongest associations with PAEE and MVPA were observed for the Cambridge index (r = 0.33 and r = 0.25, respectively). No significant heterogeneity by country was observed for this index (I(2) = 36.3%, P = 0.12; I(2) = 0.0%, P = 0.85), whereas heterogeneity was suggested for other indices (I(2) > 48%, P < 0.05, I(2) > 47%, P < 0.05). PAEE increased linearly across self-reported PA categories (P for trend <0.001), with an average difference of approximately 460 kJ/d for men and 365 kJ/d for women, between categories of the Cambridge index. The EPIC-PAQ is suitable for categorizing European men and women into four distinct categories of overall physical activity. The difference in PAEE between categories may be useful when estimating effect sizes from observational research

Dietary intake of heme iron and risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

Jakszyn P., Agudo A., Lujan-Barroso L., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Jenab M., Navarro C., Palli D., Boeing H., Manjer J., Numans M.E., Igali L., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Morois S., Grioni S., Panico C., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Quiros J.R., Molina-Montes E., Ma Huerta Castano J., Barricarte A., Amiano P., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Key T.J., Jeurnink S.M., Peeters P.H., Bamia C., Valanou E., Trichopoulou A., Kaaks R., Lukanova A., Bergmann M.M., Lindkvist B., Stenling R., Johansson I., Dahm C.C., Overvad K., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Skeie G., Ragnhild Broderstad A., Lund E., Michaud D.S., Mouw T., Riboli E., Gonzalez C.A.

Int J Cancer; 2012; 130(11): 2654-2663

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Even though recent studies suggest that a high intake of heme iron is associated with several types of cancer, epidemiological studies in relation to gastric cancer (GC) are lacking. Our previous results show a positive association between red and processed meat and non cardia gastric cancer, especially in Helicobacter pylori infected subjects. The aim of the study is to investigate the association between heme iron intake and GC risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EURGAST-EPIC). Dietary intake was assessed by validated center-specific questionnaires. Heme iron was calculated as a type-specific percentage of the total iron content in meat intake, derived from the literature. Antibodies of H. pylori infection and vitamin C levels were measured in a sub-sample of cases and matched controls included in a nested case-control study within the cohort. The study included 481,419 individuals and 444 incident cases of GC that occurred during an average of 8.7 years of followup. We observed a statistically significant association between heme iron intake and GC risk (HR 1.13 95% CI: 1.01-1.26 for a doubling of intake) adjusted by sex, age, BMI, education level, tobacco smoking and energy intake. The positive association between heme iron and the risk of GC was statistically significant in subjects with plasma vitamin C <39 mmol/l only (log2 HR 1.54 95% CI (1.01-2.35). We found a positive association between heme iron intake and gastric cancer risk

Nitrosamines and heme iron and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Jakszyn P.G., Allen N.E., Lujan-Barroso L., Gonzalez C.A., Key T.J., Fonseca-Nunes A., Tjonneland A., Fons-Johnsen N., Overvad K., Teucher B., Li K., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Oikonomou E., Sarantopoulou M., Saieva C., Krogh V., Tumino R., Ricceri F., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Huerta J.M., Ardanaz E., Arguelles M.V., Molina-Montes E., Larranaga N., Wirfalt E., Wallstrom P., Johansson M., Stattin P., Khaw K.T., Jenab M., Fedirko V., Riboli E.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2012; 21(3): 547-551

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: The evidence about nitrosamines and heme iron intake and cancer risk is limited, despite the biologic plausibility of the hypothesis that these factors might increase cancer risk. We investigated the association between dietary nitrosamines and heme iron and the risk of prostate cancer among participants of European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: Data on food consumption and complete follow-up for cancer occurrence was available for 139,005 men, recruited in 8 European countries. Estimates of HRs were obtained by proportional hazard models, stratified by age at recruitment, and study center, and adjusted for total energy intake, smoking status, marital status, dairy products, educational level, and body mass index. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 10 years, 4,606 participants were diagnosed with first incident prostate cancer. There was no overall association between prostate cancer risk and nitrosamines exposure (preformed and endogenous) or heme iron intake (HR for a doubling of intake: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.98-1.03 for N-Nitrosodimethlyamine, 0.95; 95% CI: 0.88-1.03 for endogenous Nitrosocompounds, and 1.00; 95 CI: 0.97-1.03 for heme iron). Conclusions and Impact: Our findings do not support an effect of nitrosamines (endogenous and exogenous) and heme iron intake on prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 21(3); 547-51. (c)2012 AACR

Variety in vegetable and fruit consumption and the risk of gastric and esophageal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Jeurnink S.M., Buchner F.L., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Siersema P.D., Boshuizen H.C., Numans M.E., Dahm C.C., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Roswall N., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Morois S., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Boeing H., Buijsse B., Trichopoulou A., Benetou V., Zylis D., Palli D., Sieri S., Vineis P., Tumino R., Panico S., Ocke M.C., Peeters P.H., Skeie G., Brustad M., Lund E., Sanchez-Cantalejo E., Navarro C., Amiano P., Ardanaz E., Ramon Quiros J., Hallmans G., Johansson I., Lindkvist B., Regner S., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Key T.J., Slimani N., Norat T., Vergnaud A.C., Romaguera D., Gonzalez C.A.

Int J Cancer; 2012; 131(6): E963-E973

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Diets high in vegetables and fruits have been suggested to be inversely associated with risk of gastric cancer. However, the evidence of the effect of variety of consumption is limited. We therefore investigated whether consumption of a variety of vegetables and fruit is associated with gastric and esophageal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Data on food consumption and follow-up on cancer incidence were available for 452,269 participants from 10 European countries. After a mean follow-up of 8.4 years, 475 cases of gastric and esophageal adenocarcinomas (180 noncardia, 185 cardia, gastric esophageal junction and esophagus, 110 not specified) and 98 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas were observed. Diet Diversity Scores were used to quantify the variety in vegetable and fruit consumption. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard models to calculate risk ratios. Independent from quantity of consumption, variety in the consumption of vegetables and fruit combined and of fruit consumption alone were statistically significantly inversely associated with the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (continuous hazard ratio per 2 products increment 0.88; 95% CI 0.79-0.97 and 0.76; 95% CI 0.62-0.94, respectively) with the latter particularly seen in ever smokers. Variety in vegetable and/or fruit consumption was not associated with risk of gastric and esophageal adenocarcinomas. Independent from quantity of consumption, more variety in vegetable and fruit consumption combined and in fruit consumption alone may decrease the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. However, residual confounding by lifestyle factors cannot be excluded

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20