You are here: Home

Search Result (493 REFERENCES)

2012

Intake estimation of total and individual flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and theaflavins, their food sources and determinants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

Knaze V., Zamora-Ros R., Lujan-Barroso L., Romieu I., Scalbert A., Slimani N., Riboli E., van Rossum C.T., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Trichopoulou A., Dilis V., Tsiotas K., Skeie G., Engeset D., Ramon Quiros J., Molina E., Huerta J.M., Crowe F., Wirfal E., Ericson U., Peeters P.H., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Johansson G., Johansson I., Tumino R., Boeing H., Drogan D., Amiano P., Mattiello A., Khaw K.T., Luben R., Krogh V., Ardanaz E., Sacerdote C., Salvini S., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Fagherazzi G., Perquier F., Gonzalez C.A.

Br J Nutr; 2012; 108(6): 1095-1108

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Epidemiological studies suggest health-protective effects of flavan-3-ols and their derived compounds on chronic diseases. The present study aimed to estimate dietary flavan-3-ol, proanthocyanidin (PA) and theaflavin intakes, their food sources and potential determinants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration cohort. Dietary data were collected using a standardised 24 h dietary recall software administered to 36 037 subjects aged 35-74 years. Dietary data were linked with a flavanoid food composition database compiled from the latest US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and expanded to include recipes, estimations and retention factors. Total flavan-3-ol intake was the highest in UK Health-conscious men (453.6 mg/d) and women of UK General population (377.6 mg/d), while the intake was the lowest in Greece (men: 160.5 mg/d; women: 124.8 mg/d). Monomer intake was the highest in UK General population (men: 213.5 mg/d; women: 178.6 mg/d) and the lowest in Greece (men: 26.6 mg/d in men; women: 20.7 mg/d). Theaflavin intake was the highest in UK General population (men: 29.3 mg/d; women: 25.3 mg/d) and close to zero in Greece and Spain. PA intake was the highest in Asturias (men: 455.2 mg/d) and San Sebastian (women: 253 mg/d), while being the lowest in Greece (men: 134.6 mg/d; women: 101.0 mg/d). Except for the UK, non-citrus fruits (apples/pears) were the highest contributors to the total flavan-3-ol intake. Tea was the main contributor of total flavan-3-ols in the UK. Flavan-3-ol, PA and theaflavin intakes were significantly different among all assessed groups. This study showed heterogeneity in flavan-3-ol, PA and theaflavin intake throughout the EPIC countries

Plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer in the EPIC cohort study

Leenders M., Chuang S.C., Dahm C.C., Overvad K., Ueland P.M., Midttun O., Vollset S.E., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Jenab M., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Kaaks R., Canzian F., Boeing H., Weikert C., Trichopoulou A., Bamia C., Naska A., Palli D., Pala V., Mattiello A., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., van Duijnhoven F.J., Peeters P.H., Van Gils C.H., Lund E., Rodriguez L., Duell E.J., Perez M.J., Molina-Montes E., Castano J.M., Barricarte A., Larranaga N., Johansen D., Lindkvist B., Sund M., Ye W., Khaw K.T., Wareham N.J., Michaud D.S., Riboli E., Xun W.W., Allen N.E., Crowe F.L., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Vineis P.

Int J Cancer; 2012; 131(4): 997-1002

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Smoking is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer, previously investigated by the means of questionnaires. Using cotinine as a biomarker for tobacco exposure allows more accurate quantitative analyses to be performed. This study on pancreatic cancer, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC cohort), included 146 cases and 146 matched controls. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, plasma cotinine levels were analyzed on average 8.0 years before cancer onset (5-95% range: 2.8-12.0 years). The relation between plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer was analyzed with conditional logistic regression for different levels of cotinine in a population of never and current smokers. This was also done for the self-reported number of smoked cigarettes per day at baseline. Every increase of 350 nmol/L of plasma cotinine was found to significantly elevate risk of pancreatic cancer [odds ratio (OR): 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.60]. People with a cotinine level over 1187.8 nmol/L, a level comparable to smoking 17 cigarettes per day, have an elevated risk of pancreatic cancer, compared to people with cotinine levels below 55 nmol/L (OR: 3.66, 95% CI: 1.44-9.26). The results for self-reported smoking at baseline also show an increased risk of pancreatic cancer from cigarette smoking based on questionnaire information. People who smoke more than 30 cigarettes per day showed the highest risk compared to never smokers (OR: 4.15, 95% CI: 1.02-16.42). This study is the first to show that plasma cotinine levels are strongly related to pancreatic cancer

Biomarkers of oxidative stress and risk of developing colorectal cancer: a cohort-nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition

Leufkens A.M., van Duijnhoven F.J., Woudt S.H., Siersema P.D., Jenab M., Jansen E.H., Pischon T., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Overvad K., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Morois S., Palli D., Pala V., Tumino R., Vineis P., Panico S., Kaaks R., Lukanova A., Boeing H., Aleksandrova K., Trichopoulou A., Trichopoulos D., Dilis V., Peeters P.H., Skeie G., Gonzalez C.A., Arguelles M., Sanchez M.J., Dorronsoro M., Huerta J.M., Ardanaz E., Hallmans G., Palmqvist R., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Crowe F.L., Fedirko V., Norat T., Riboli E., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B.

Am J Epidemiol; 2012; 175(7): 653-663

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in carcinogenesis, but prospective evidence for an association between biomarkers of oxidative stress and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is limited. The authors investigated the association between prediagnostic serum levels of oxidative stress indicators (i.e., reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP)) and CRC risk. This was examined in a nested case-control study (1,064 CRC cases, 1,064 matched controls) in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (1992-2003). Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional logistic regression analyses. ROM were associated with overall CRC risk (highest tertile vs. lowest: adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR(adj)) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47, 2.48), proximal (IRR(adj) = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.06, 3.36) and distal (IRR(adj) = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.37, 3.89) colon cancer, and rectal cancer (IRR(adj) = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.72). When results were stratified by tertile of follow-up time, the association remained significant only in participants with less than 2.63 years of follow-up (IRR(adj) = 2.28, 95% CI: 1.78, 2.94; P-heterogeneity < 0.01). FRAP was not associated with CRC risk. In conclusion, prediagnostic serum ROM levels were associated with increased risk of CRC. However, this association was seen only in subjects with relatively short follow-up, suggesting that the association results from production of reactive oxygen species by preclinical tumors

Educational level and risk of colorectal cancer in EPIC with specific reference to tumor location

Leufkens A.M., van Duijnhoven F.J., Boshuizen H.C., Siersema P.D., Kunst A.E., Mouw T., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Overvad K., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Morois S., Krogh V., Tumino R., Panico S., Polidoro S., Palli D., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Pischon T., Trichopoulou A., Orfanos P., Goufa I., Peeters P.H., Skeie G., Braaten T., Rodriguez L., Lujan-Barroso L., Sanchez-Perez M.J., Navarro C., Barricarte A., Zackrisson S., Almquist M., Hallmans G., Palmqvist R., Tsilidis K.K., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Gallo V., Jenab M., Riboli E., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B.

Int J Cancer; 2012; 130(3): 622-630

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Existing evidence is inconclusive on whether socioeconomic status (SES) and educational inequalities influence colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, and whether low or high SES/educational level is associated with developing CRC. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between educational level and CRC. We studied data from 400,510 participants in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study, of whom 2,447 developed CRC (colon: 1,551, rectum: 896, mean follow-up 8.3 years). Cox proportional hazard regression analysis stratified by age, gender and center, and adjusted for potential confounders were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Relative indices of inequality (RII) for education were estimated using Cox regression models. We conducted separate analyses for tumor location, gender and geographical region. Compared with participants with college/university education, participants with vocational secondary education or less had a nonsignificantly lower risk of developing CRC. When further stratified for tumor location, adjusted risk estimates for the proximal colon were statistically significant for primary education or less (HR 0.73, 95%CI 0.57-0.94) and for vocational secondary education (HR 0.76, 95%CI 0.58-0.98). The inverse association between low education and CRC risk was particularly found in women and Southern Europe. These associations were statistically significant for CRC, for colon cancer and for proximal colon cancer. In conclusion, CRC risk, especially in the proximal colon, is lower in subjects with a lower educational level compared to those with a higher educational level. This association is most pronounced in women and Southern Europe

Dietary intake of iron, heme-iron and magnesium and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort

Molina-Montes E., Wark P.A., Sanchez M.J., Norat T., Jakszyn P., Lujan-Barroso L., Michaud D.S., Crowe F., Allen N., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Trichopoulou A., Adarakis G., Katarachia H., Skeie G., Henningsen M., Broderstad A.R., Berrino F., Tumino R., Palli D., Mattiello A., Vineis P., Amiano P., Barricarte A., Huerta J.M., Duell E.J., Quiros J.R., Ye W., Sund M., Lindkvist B., Johansen D., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Roswall N., Li K., Grote V.A., Steffen A., Boeing H., Racine A., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Carbonnel F., Peeters P.H., Siersema P.D., Fedirko V., Jenab M., Riboli E., Bueno-de-Mesquita B.

Int J Cancer; 2012; 131(7): E1134-E1147

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Several studies support a protective effect of dietary magnesium against type 2 diabetes, but a harmful effect for iron. As diabetes has been linked to pancreatic cancer, intake of these nutrients may be also associated with this cancer. We examined the association between dietary intake of magnesium, total iron and heme-iron and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In total, 142,203 men and 334,999 women, recruited between 1992 and 2000, were included. After an average follow-up of 11.3 years, 396 men and 469 women developed exocrine pancreatic cancer. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using Cox regression stratified by age and center, and adjusted for energy intake, smoking status, height, weight, and self-reported diabetes status. Neither intake of magnesium, total iron nor heme-iron was associated with pancreatic cancer risk. In stratified analyses, a borderline inverse association was observed among overweight men (body mass index, >/=25 kg/m(2) ) with magnesium (HR(per 100 mg/day increase) = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.63-1.01) although this was less apparent using calibrated intake. In female smokers, a higher intake of heme-iron was associated with a higher pancreatic cancer risk (HR (per 1 mg/day increase) = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.10-1.74). After calibration, this risk increased significantly to 2.5-fold (95% CI = 1.22-5.28). Overall, dietary magnesium, total iron and heme-iron were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk during the follow-up period. Our observation that heme-iron was associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk in female smokers warrants replication in additional study populations

Dietary Fibre Intake and Risks of Cancers of the Colon and Rectum in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Murphy N., Norat T., Ferrari P., Jenab M., Bueno-de-Mesquita B., Skeie G., Dahm C.C., Overvad K., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Racine A., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Boeing H., Bergmann M.M., Trichopoulou A., Trichopoulos D., Lagiou P., Palli D., Pala V., Panico S., Tumino R., Vineis P., Siersema P., van Duijnhoven F., Peeters P.H., Hjartaker A., Engeset D., Gonzalez C.A., Sanchez M.J., Dorronsoro M., Navarro C., Ardanaz E., Quiros J.R., Sonestedt E., Ericson U., Nilsson L., Palmqvist R., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Key T.J., Crowe F.L., Fedirko V., Wark P.A., Chuang S.C., Riboli E.

PLoS ONE; 2012; 7(6): e39361

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Earlier analyses within the EPIC study showed that dietary fibre intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, but results from some large cohort studies do not support this finding. We explored whether the association remained after longer follow-up with a near threefold increase in colorectal cancer cases, and if the association varied by gender and tumour location. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After a mean follow-up of 11.0 years, 4,517 incident cases of colorectal cancer were documented. Total, cereal, fruit, and vegetable fibre intakes were estimated from dietary questionnaires at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models stratified by age, sex, and centre, and adjusted for total energy intake, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, education, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy, oral contraceptive use, and intakes of alcohol, folate, red and processed meats, and calcium. After multivariable adjustments, total dietary fibre was inversely associated with colorectal cancer (HR per 10 g/day increase in fibre 0.87, 95% CI: 0.79-0.96). Similar linear associations were observed for colon and rectal cancers. The association between total dietary fibre and risk of colorectal cancer risk did not differ by age, sex, or anthropometric, lifestyle, and dietary variables. Fibre from cereals and fibre from fruit and vegetables were similarly associated with colon cancer; but for rectal cancer, the inverse association was only evident for fibre from cereals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results strengthen the evidence for the role of high dietary fibre intake in colorectal cancer prevention

Comparison of standardised dietary folate intake across ten countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Park J.Y., Nicolas G., Freisling H., Biessy C., Scalbert A., Romieu I., Chajes V., Chuang S.C., Ericson U., Wallstrom P., Ros M.M., Peeters P.H., Mattiello A., Palli D., Maria Huerta J., Amiano P., Halkjaer J., Dahm C.C., Trichopoulou A., Orfanos P., Teucher B., Feller S., Skeie G., Engeset D., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Crowe F., Khaw K.T., Vineis P., Slimani N.

Br J Nutr; 2012; 108(3): 552-569

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Folate plays an important role in the synthesis and methylation of DNA as a cofactor in one-carbon metabolism. Inadequate folate intake has been linked to adverse health events. However, comparable information on dietary folate intake across European countries has never been reported. The objective of the present study was to describe the dietary folate intake and its food sources in ten countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 36 034 participants (aged 35-74 years) who completed a single 24 h dietary recall using a computerised interview software program, EPIC-Soft(R) (International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon). Dietary folate intake was estimated using the standardised EPIC Nutrient DataBase, adjusted for age, energy intake, weight and height and weighted by season and day of recall. Adjusted mean dietary folate intake in most centres ranged from 250 to 350 mug/d in men and 200 to 300 mug/d in women. Folate intake tended to be lower among current smokers and heavier alcohol drinkers and to increase with educational level, especially in women. Supplement users (any types) were likely to report higher dietary folate intake in most centres. Vegetables, cereals and fruits, nuts and seeds were the main contributors to folate intake. Nonetheless, the type and pattern of consumption of these main food items varied across the centres. These first comparisons of standardised dietary folate intakes across different European populations show moderate regional differences (except the UK health conscious group), and variation by sex, educational level, smoking and alcohol-drinking status, and supplement use

The prospective association between total and type of fish intake and type 2 diabetes in 8 European countries: EPIC-InterAct Study

Patel P.S., Forouhi N.G., Kuijsten A., Schulze M.B., van Woudenbergh G.J., Ardanaz E., Amiano P., Arriola L., Balkau B., Barricarte A., Beulens J.W., Boeing H., Buijsse B., Crowe F.L., de Lauzon-Guillan B., Fagherazzi G., Franks P.W., Gonzalez C., Grioni S., Halkjaer J., Huerta J.M., Key T.J., Kuhn T., Masala G., Nilsson P., Overvad K., Panico S., Quiros J.R., Rolandsson O., Sacerdote C., Sanchez M.J., Schmidt E.B., Slimani N., Spijkerman A.M., Teucher B., Tjonneland A., Tormo M.J., Tumino R., van der A D.L., van der Schouw Y.T., Sharp S.J., Langenberg C., Feskens E.J., Riboli E., Wareham N.J.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2012; 95(6): 1445-1453

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence of an association between fish intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is inconsistent and unresolved. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the association between total and type of fish intake and T2D in 8 European countries. DESIGN: This was a case-cohort study, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up, 12,403 incident diabetes cases, and a random subcohort of 16,835 individuals from 8 European countries. Habitual fish intake (lean fish, fatty fish, total fish, shellfish, and combined fish and shellfish) was assessed by country-specific dietary questionnaires. HRs were estimated in each country by using Prentice-weighted Cox regression models and pooled by using a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: No overall association was found between combined fish and shellfish intake and incident T2D per quartile (adjusted HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.06; P-trend = 0.99). Total fish, lean fish, and shellfish intakes separately were also not associated with T2D, but fatty fish intake was weakly inversely associated with T2D: adjusted HR per quartile 0.97 (0.94, 1.00), with an HR of 0.84 (0.70, 1.01), 0.85 (0.76, 0.95), and 0.87 (0.78, 0.97) for a comparison of the second, third, and fourth quartiles with the lowest quartile of intake, respectively (P-trend = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that lean fish, total fish, and shellfish intakes are not associated with incident diabetes but that fatty fish intake may be weakly inversely associated. Replication of these findings in other populations and investigation of the mechanisms underlying these associations are warranted. Meanwhile, current public health recommendations on fish intake should remain unchanged

Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Concentration and Risk of Prostate Cancer: Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Price A.J., Allen N.E., Appleby P.N., Crowe F.L., Travis R.C., Tipper S.J., Overvad K., Gronbaek H., Tjonneland A., Johnsen N.F., Rinaldi S., Kaaks R., Lukanova A., Boeing H., Aleksandrova K., Trichopoulou A., Trichopoulos D., Andarakis G., Palli D., Krogh V., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Arguelles M.V., Sanchez M.J., Chirlaque M.D., Barricarte A., Larranaga N., Gonzalez C.A., Stattin P., Johansson M., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Gunter M., Riboli E., Key T.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2012; 21(9): 1531-1541

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: High circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations have been associated with increased risk for prostate cancer in several prospective epidemiological studies. In this study, we investigate the association between circulating IGF-I concentration and risk of prostate cancer over the long term in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. METHODS: In a nested case-control design, 1,542 incident prostate cancer cases from eight European countries were individually matched to 1,542 controls by study center, age at recruitment, duration of follow-up, time of day, and duration of fasting at blood collection. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate risk for prostate cancer associated with IGF-I concentration, overall and by various subgroups. RESULTS: Circulating IGF-I concentration was associated with a significant increased risk for prostate cancer [OR for highest vs. lowest quartile, 1.69; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.35-2.13; P(trend) = 0.0002]. This positive association did not differ according to duration of follow-up [ORs for highest vs. lowest quartile were 2.01 (1.35-2.99), 1.37 (0.94-2.00), and 1.80 (1.17-2.77) for cancers diagnosed <4, 4-7, and >7 years after blood collection, respectively (P(heterogeneity) = 0.77)] or by stage, grade, and age at diagnosis or age at blood collection (all subgroups P(heterogeneity) >0.05). CONCLUSION: In this European population, high circulating IGF-I concentration is positively associated with risk for prostate cancer over the short and long term. Impact: As IGF-I is the only potentially modifiable risk factor so far identified, research into the effects of reducing circulating IGF-I levels on subsequent prostate cancer risk is warranted. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 21(9); 1531-41. (c)2012 AACR

Concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Rohrmann S., Grote V.A., Becker S., Rinaldi S., Tjonneland A., Roswall N., Gronbaek H., Overvad K., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Racine A., Teucher B., Boeing H., Drogan D., Dilis V., Lagiou P., Trichopoulou A., Palli D., Tagliabue G., Tumino R., Vineis P., Mattiello A., Rodriguez L., Duell E.J., Molina-Montes E., Dorronsoro M., Huerta J.M., Ardanaz E., Jeurnink S., Peeters P.H., Lindkvist B., Johansen D., Sund M., Ye W., Khaw K.T., Wareham N.J., Allen N.E., Crowe F.L., Fedirko V., Jenab M., Michaud D.S., Norat T., Riboli E., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Kaaks R.

Br J Cancer; 2012; 106(5): 1004-1010

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Background:Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (BPs) regulate cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, and may have a role in the aetiology of various cancers. Information on their role in pancreatic cancer is limited and was examined here in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.Methods:Serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 422 cases and 422 controls matched on age, sex, study centre, recruitment date, and time since last meal. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for confounding variables.Results:Neither circulating levels of IGF-I (OR=1.21, 95% CI 0.75-1.93 for top vs bottom quartile, P-trend 0.301), IGFBP-3 (OR=1.00, 95% CI 0.66-1.51, P-trend 0.79), nor the molar IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio, an indicator of free IGF-I level (OR=1.22, 95% CI 0.75-1.97, P-trend 0.27), were statistically significantly associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer. In a cross-classification, however, a high concentration of IGF-I with concurrently low levels of IGFBP-3 was related to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (OR=1.72, 95% CI 1.05-2.83; P-interaction=0.154).Conclusion:On the basis of these results, circulating levels of components of the IGF axis do not appear to be the risk factors for pancreatic cancer. However, on the basis of the results of a subanalysis, it cannot be excluded that a relatively large amount of IGF-1 together with very low levels of IGFBP-3 might still be associated with an increase in pancreatic cancer risk

The association of education with long-term weight change in the EPIC-PANACEA cohort

Rohrmann S., Steinbrecher A., Linseisen J., Hermann S., May A., Luan J., Ekelund U., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Fagherazzi G., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Agnoli C., Tumino R., Masala G., Mattiello A., Ricceri F., Travier N., Amiano P., Ardanaz E., Chirlaque M.D., Sanchez M.J., Rodriguez L., Nilsson L.M., Johansson I., Hedblad B., Rosvall M., Lund E., Braaten T., Naska A., Orfanos P., Trichopoulou A., van den Berg S., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Bergmann M.M., Steffen A., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Wareham N.J., Khaw K.T., Crowe F.L., Illner A.K., Slimani N., Gallo V., Mouw T., Norat T., Peeters P.H.

Eur J Clin Nutr; 2012; 66(8): 957-963

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Background/objectives:Cross-sectionally, educational attainment is strongly associated with the prevalence of obesity, but this association is less clear for weight change during adult life. The objective of this study is to examine the association between educational attainment and weight change during adult life in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).Subjects/methods:EPIC is a cohort study with 361 467 participants and up to 10 years of follow-up. Educational attainment was categorized according to the highest obtained school level (primary school or less, vocational secondary training, other secondary education and university). Multivariate mixed-effects linear regression models were used to study education in relation to weight at age 20 years (self-reported), to annual change in weight between age 20 years and measured weight at recruitment, and to annual change in weight during follow-up time.Results:Higher educational attainment was associated with on average a lower body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years and a lower increase in weight up to recruitment (highest vs lowest educational attainment in men: -60 g per year (95% confidence interval (CI) -80; -40), women -110 g per year (95% CI -130; -80)). Although during follow-up after recruitment an increase in body weight was observed in all educational levels, gain was lowest in men and women with a university degree (high vs low education -120 g per year (95% CI -150; -90) and -70 g per year (95% CI -90; -60), respectively).Conclusions:Existing differences in BMI between higher and lower educated individuals at early adulthood became more pronounced during lifetime, which possibly impacts on obesity-related chronic disease risk in persons with lower educational attainment

Is concordance with World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines for cancer prevention related to subsequent risk of cancer? Results from the EPIC study

Romaguera D., Vergnaud A.C., Peeters P.H., Van Gils C.H., Chan D.S., Ferrari P., Romieu I., Jenab M., Slimani N., Clavel-Chapelon F., Fagherazzi G., Perquier F., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Boeing H., von Rusten A., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Dahm C.C., Overvad K., Quiros J.R., Gonzalez C.A., Sanchez M.J., Navarro C., Barricarte A., Dorronsoro M., Khaw K.T., Wareham N.J., Crowe F.L., Key T.J., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Bamia C., Masala G., Vineis P., Tumino R., Sieri S., Panico S., May A.M., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Buchner F.L., Wirfalt E., Manjer J., Johansson I., Hallmans G., Skeie G., Benjaminsen Borch K., Parr C.L., Riboli E., Norat T.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2012; 96(1): 150-163

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute of Cancer Research (AICR) issued 8 recommendations (plus 2 special recommendations) on diet, physical activity, and weight management for cancer prevention on the basis of the most comprehensive collection of available evidence. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether concordance with the WCRF/AICR recommendations was related to cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. DESIGN: The present study included 386,355 EPIC participants from 9 European countries. At recruitment, dietary, anthropometric, and lifestyle information was collected. A score was constructed based on the WCRF/AICR recommendations on weight management, physical activity, foods and drinks that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks, and breastfeeding for women; the score range was 0-6 for men and 0-7 for women. Higher scores indicated greater concordance with WCRF/AICR recommendations. The association between the score and cancer risk was estimated by using multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS: Concordance with the score was significantly associated with decreased risk of cancer. A 1-point increment in the score was associated with a risk reduction of 5% (95% CI: 3%, 7%) for total cancer, 12% (95% CI: 9%, 16%) for colorectal cancer, and 16% (95% CI: 9%, 22%) for stomach cancer. Significant associations were also observed for cancers of the breast, endometrium, lung, kidney, upper aerodigestive tract, liver, and esophagus but not for prostate, ovarian, pancreatic, and bladder cancers. CONCLUSION: Adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention may lower the risk of developing most types of cancer

Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Romieu I., Ferrari P., Rinaldi S., Slimani N., Jenab M., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Overvad K., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Lajous M., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Naska A., Vasilopoulo E., Sacerdote C., Tumino R., Masala G., Sieri S., Panico S., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Van der A D., Van Gils C.H., Peeters P.H., Lund E., Skeie G., Asli L.A., Rodriguez L., Navarro C., Amiano P., Sanchez M.J., Barricarte A., Buckland G., Sonestedt E., Wirfalt E., Hallmans G., Johansson I., Key T.J., Allen N.E., Khaw K.T., Wareham N.J., Norat T., Riboli E., Clavel-Chapelon F.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2012; 96(2): 345-355

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: The glycemic potential of a diet is associated with chronically elevated insulin concentrations, which may augment breast cancer (BC) risk by stimulating insulin receptor or by affecting insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)-mediated mitogenesis. It is unclear whether this effect differs by BC phenotype. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the relation between glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and total carbohydrate intake with BC by using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). DESIGN: We identified 11,576 women with invasive BC among 334,849 EPIC women aged 34-66 y (5th to 95th percentiles) at baseline over a median follow-up of 11.5 y. Dietary GI and GL were calculated from country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to quantify the association between GI, GL, and carbohydrate intake and BC risk. BC tumors were classified by receptor status. RESULTS: Overall GI, GL, and carbohydrates were not related to BC. Among postmenopausal women, GL and carbohydate intake were significantly associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)) BC when extreme quintiles (Q) were compared [multivariable HR(Q5-Q1) (95% CI) = 1.36 (1.02, 1.82; P-trend = 0.010) and HR(Q5-Q1) = 1.41 (1.05, 1.89; P-trend = 0.009), respectively]. Further stratification by progesterone receptor (PR) status showed slightly stronger associations with ER(-)/PR(-) BC [HR(Q5-Q1) (95% CI) = 1.48 (1.07, 2.05; P-trend = 0.010) for GL and HR(Q5-Q1) = 1.62 (1.15, 2.30; P-trend = 0.005) for carbohydrates]. No significant association with ER-positive BC was observed. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that a diet with a high GL and carbohydrate intake is positively associated with an increased risk of developing ER(-) and ER(-)/PR(-) BC among postmenopausal women

Plasma carotenoids and vitamin C concentrations and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Ros M.M., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Kampman E., Aben K.K., Buchner F.L., Jansen E.H., Van Gils C.H., Egevad L., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Roswall N., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Kvaskoff M., Perquier F., Kaaks R., Chang-Claude J., Weikert S., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Dilis V., Palli D., Pala V., Sacerdote C., Tumino R., Panico S., Peeters P.H., Gram I.T., Skeie G., Huerta J.M., Barricarte A., Quiros J.R., Sanchez M.J., Buckland G., Larranaga N., Ehrnstrom R., Wallstrom P., Ljungberg B., Hallmans G., Key T.J., Allen N.E., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Brennan P., Riboli E., Kiemeney L.A.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2012; 96(4): 902-910

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Published associations between dietary carotenoids and vitamin C and bladder cancer risk are inconsistent. Biomarkers may provide more accurate measures of nutrient status. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between plasma carotenoids and vitamin C and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. DESIGN: A total of 856 patients with newly diagnosed UCC were matched with 856 cohort members by sex, age at baseline, study center, date and time of blood collection, and fasting status. Plasma carotenoids (alpha- and beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin) were measured by using reverse-phase HPLC, and plasma vitamin C was measured by using a colorimetric assay. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated by using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for smoking status, duration, and intensity. RESULTS: UCC risk decreased with higher concentrations of the sum of plasma carotenoids (IRR for the highest compared with the lowest quartile: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.93; P-trend = 0.04). Plasma beta-carotene was inversely associated with aggressive UCC (IRR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.88; P-trend = 0.02). Plasma lutein was inversely associated with risk of nonaggressive UCC (IRR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.98; P-trend = 0.05). No association was observed between plasma vitamin C and risk of UCC. CONCLUSIONS: Although residual confounding by smoking or other factors cannot be excluded, higher concentrations of plasma carotenoids may reduce risk of UCC, in particular aggressive UCC. Plasma lutein may reduce risk of nonaggressive UCC

Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of aggressive and non-aggressive urothelial cell carcinomas in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Ros M.M., Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita H., Kampman E., Buchner F.L., Aben K.K., Egevad L., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Roswall N., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Morois S., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Weikert S., Ruesten Av, Trichopoulou A., Naska A., Benetou V., Saieva C., Pala V., Ricceri F., Tumino R., Mattiello A., Peeters P.H., Van Gils C.H., Gram I.T., Engeset D., Chirlaque M.D., Ardanazx E., Rodriguez L., Amanio P., Gonzalez C.A., Sanchez M.J., Ulmert D., Ernstrom R., Ljungberg B., Allen N.E., Key T.J., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Slimani N., Romieu I., Kiemeney L.A., Riboli E.

Eur J Cancer; 2012; 48(17): 3267-3277

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Many epidemiological studies have examined fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to the risk of urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) of the bladder, but results are inconsistent. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and UCC risk may vary by bladder tumour aggressiveness. Therefore, we examined the relation between fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of aggressive and non-aggressive UCC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: After 8.9years of follow-up, 947UCC were diagnosed among 468,656 EPIC participants. Of these, 421 could be classified as aggressive UCC and 433 as non-aggressive UCC cases. At recruitment, fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed by validated dietary questionnaires. Multivariable hazard ratios were estimated using Cox regression stratified by age, sex and center and adjusted for smoking status, duration and intensity of smoking, and energy intake. RESULTS: Total consumption of fruits and vegetables was not associated with aggressive UCC nor with non-aggressive UCC. A 25g/day increase in leafy vegetables and grapes consumption was associated with a reduced risk of non-aggressive UCC (hazard ratio (HR) 0.88; 95%confidence interval (CI) 0.78-1.00 and HR 0.87; 95%CI 0.77-0.98, respectively), while the intake of root vegetables was inversely associated with risk of aggressive UCC (HR 0.87; 95%CI 0.77-0.98). CONCLUSION: Our study did not confirm a protective effect of total fruit and/or vegetable consumption on aggressive or non-aggressive UCC. High consumption of certain types of vegetables and of fruits may reduce the risk of aggressive or non-aggressive UCC; however chance findings cannot be excluded

Prostate stem-cell antigen gene is associated with diffuse and intestinal gastric cancer in Caucasians: results from the EPIC-EURGAST study

Sala N., Munoz X., Travier N., Agudo A., Duell E.J., Moreno V., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Canzian F., Kaaks R., Boeing H., Meidtner K., Trichopoulos A., Tsiotas K., Zylis D., Vineis P., Panico S., Palli D., Krogh V., Tumino R., Lund E., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Numans M.E., Peeters P.H., Quiros J.R., Sanchez M.J., Navarro C., Ardanaz E., Dorronsoro M., Hallmans G., Stenling R., Manjer J., Allen N.E., Travis R.C., Khaw K.T., Jenab M., Offerhaus G.J., Riboli E., Gonzalez C.A.

Int J Cancer; 2012; 130(10): 2417-2427

Abstract as provided by PubMed

A genome-wide study performed in a Japanese population identified a strong association between SNP rs2294008 (Met1Thr) in the Prostate Stem Cell Antigen gene (PSCA) and diffuse-type gastric cancer (GC). This association was validated in different Asian populations, and, very recently, a study has been published in Caucasians. In this study, we analyzed the association between PSCA variation and GC risk in Caucasians from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Six tagSNPs covering the PSCA gene region were genotyped in 411 incident gastric adenocarcinoma cases and 1530 matched controls from a nested case-control study in the EPIC cohort. Associations were analyzed by unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex and country. The T allele of rs2294008 in PSCA was found to be a highly significant risk factor for GC (per allele OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.23-1.66, p-value = 6.5 x 10(-6) ), particularly of the noncardia-type (per allele OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.19-1.81, p-value = 3 x 10(-4) ). At contrast with previous studies, no significant differences were observed between the diffuse (per allele OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.20-1.96, p-value = 5 x 10(-4) ) and the intestinal (per allele OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.20-1.93, p-value = 5 x 10(-4) ) GC histological subtypes. Although rs12155758 and rs9297976 were also found associated with GC, this association appeared to be due to linkage disequilibrium with rs2294008. Haplotype analysis did not provide additional information. These results confirm the association between variation in the promoter region of PSCA and GC risk in Caucasians and also indicate that the rs2294008 variant is a similar risk factor for both the diffuse and intestinal-types of GC

Dietary total antioxidant capacity and gastric cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

Serafini M., Jakszyn P., Lujan-Barroso L., Agudo A., Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita H., van Duijnhoven F.J., Jenab M., Navarro C., Palli D., Boeing H., Wallstrom P., Regner S., Numans M.E., Carneiro F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Morois S., Grioni S., Panico S., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Ramon Quiros J., Molina-Montes E., Huerta Castano J.M., Barricarte A., Amiano P., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Key T.J., Jeurnink S.M., Peeters P.H., Bamia C., Valanou E., Trichopoulou A., Kaaks R., Lukanova A., Bergmann M.M., Lindkvist B., Stenling R., Johansson I., Dahm C.C., Overvad K., Jensen M., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Lund E., Rinaldi S., Michaud D., Mouw T., Riboli E., Gonzalez C.A.

Int J Cancer; 2012; 131(4): E544-E554

Abstract as provided by PubMed

A high intake of dietary antioxidant compounds has been hypothesized to be an appropriate strategy to reduce gastric cancer (GC) development. We investigated the effect of dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in relation to GC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) study including 23 centers in 10 European countries. A total of 521,457 subjects (153,447 men) aged mostly 35-70 years old, were recruited largely between 1992 and 1998. Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), measuring reducing and chain-breaking antioxidant capacity were used to measure dietary TAC from plant foods. Dietary antioxidant intake is associated with a reduction in the risk of GC for both FRAP (adjusted HR 0.66; 95%CI (0.46-0.95) and TRAP (adjusted HR 0.61; 95%CI (0.43-0.87) (highest vs. lowest quintile). The association was observed for both cardia and noncardia cancers. A clear effect was observed in smokers with a significant reduction in GC risk for the fifth quintile of intake for both assays (highest vs. lowest quintile: adjusted HR 0.41; 95%CI (0.22-0.76) p for trend <0.001 for FRAP; adjusted HR 0.52; 95%CI (0.28-0.97) p for trend <0.001 for TRAP) but not in nonsmokers. In former smokers, the association with FRAP intake was statistically significant (highest vs. lowest quintile: adjusted HR 0.4; 95%CI (0.21-0.75) p < 0.05); no association was observed for TRAP. Dietary antioxidant capacity intake from different sources of plant foods is associated with a reduction in the risk of GC

The amount and type of dairy product intake and incident type 2 diabetes: results from the EPIC-InterAct Study

Sluijs I., Forouhi N.G., Beulens J.W., van der Schouw Y.T., Agnoli C., Arriola L., Balkau B., Barricarte A., Boeing H., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Clavel-Chapelon F., Crowe F.L., de Lauzon-Guillain B., Drogan D., Franks P.W., Gavrila D., Gonzalez C., Halkjaer J., Kaaks R., Moskal A., Nilsson P., Overvad K., Palli D., Panico S., Quiros J.R., Ricceri F., Rinaldi S., Rolandsson O., Sacerdote C., Sanchez M.J., Slimani N., Spijkerman A.M., Teucher B., Tjonneland A., Tormo M.J., Tumino R., van der A D.L., Sharp S.J., Langenberg C., Feskens E.J., Riboli E., Wareham N.J.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2012; 96(2): 382-390

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Dairy product intake may be inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is inconclusive for total dairy products and sparse for types of dairy products. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the prospective association of total dairy products and different dairy subtypes with incidence of diabetes in populations with marked variation of intake of these food groups. DESIGN: A nested case-cohort within 8 European countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (n = 340,234; 3.99 million person-years of follow-up) included a random subcohort (n = 16,835) and incident diabetes cases (n = 12,403). Baseline dairy product intake was assessed by using dietary questionnaires. Country-specific Prentice-weighted Cox regression HRs were calculated and pooled by using a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Intake of total dairy products was not associated with diabetes (HR for the comparison of the highest with the lowest quintile of total dairy products: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.34; P-trend = 0.92) in an analysis adjusted for age, sex, BMI, diabetes risk factors, education, and dietary factors. Of the dairy subtypes, cheese intake tended to have an inverse association with diabetes (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.02; P-trend = 0.01), and a higher combined intake of fermented dairy products (cheese, yogurt, and thick fermented milk) was inversely associated with diabetes (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.99; P-trend = 0.02) in adjusted analyses that compared extreme quintiles. CONCLUSIONS: This large prospective study found no association between total dairy product intake and diabetes risk. An inverse association of cheese intake and combined fermented dairy product intake with diabetes is suggested, which merits further study

Meat and heme iron intake and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aero-digestive tract in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Steffen A., Bergmann M.M., Sanchez M.J., Chirlaque M.D., Jakszyn P., Amiano P., Quiros J.R., Barricarte Gurrea A., Ferrari P., Romieu I., Fedirko V., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Siersema P.D., Peeters P.H., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Crowe F.L., Skeie G., Hallmanns G., Johansson I., Borgquist S., Ericson U., Egeberg R., Tjonneland A., Overvad K., Grote V., Li K., Trichopoulou A., Oikonomidou D., Pantzalis M., Tumino R., Panico S., Palli D., Krogh V., Naccarati A., Mouw T., Vergnaud A.C., Norat T., Boeing H.

Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev; 2012; 21(12): 2138-2148

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Evidence from prospective studies on intake of meat and fish and risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) is scarce. We prospectively investigated the association of meat and fish intake with risk of SCC of the UADT and the possible mechanism via heme iron in the large multicenter European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. METHODS: Multivariable proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) of SCC of the UADT in relation to intake of total meat, as well as subtypes of meat, fish, and heme iron among 348,738 individuals from 7 European countries. RESULTS: During an average follow-up of 11.8 years, a total of 682 incident cases of UADT SCC were accrued. Intake of processed meat was positively associated with risk of SCC of the UADT in the total cohort [highest vs. lowest quintile: RR = 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-1.94], however, in stratified analyses, this association was confined to the group of current smokers (highest vs. lowest quintile: RR = 1.89; 95% CI = 1.22-2.93). Red meat, poultry, fish, and heme iron were not consistently related to UADT SCC. CONCLUSION: Higher intake of processed meat was positively associated with SCC of the UADT among smokers. Although this finding was stable in various sensitivity analyses, we cannot rule out residual confounding by smoking. Confirmation in future studies and identification of biologic mechanisms is warranted. IMPACT: Smokers may further increase their risk for SCC of the UADT if they additionally consume large amounts of processed meat

Longitudinal changes in weight in relation to smoking cessation in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA study

Travier N., Agudo A., May A.M., Gonzalez C., Luan J., Wareham N.J., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., van den Berg S.W., Slimani N., Rinaldi S., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Palli D., Sieri S., Mattiello A., Tumino R., Vineis P., Norat T., Romaguera D., Rodriguez L., Sanchez M.J., Dorronsoro M., Barricarte A., Huerta J.M., Key T.J., Orfanos P., Naska A., Trichopoulou A., Rohrmann S., Kaaks R., Bergmann M.M., Boeing H., Hallmans G., Johansson I., Manjer J., Lindkvist B., Jakobsen M.U., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Lund E., Braaten T., Odysseos A., Riboli E., Peeters P.H.

Prev Med; 2012; 54(3): 183-192

Abstract as provided by PubMed

PURPOSE: We assessed the association between smoking cessation and prospective weight change in the European population of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of smoking, Eating out of home And obesity (EPIC-PANACEA) project. METHODS: The study involved more than 300,000 healthy volunteers, recruited between 1992 and 2000 in 9 European countries, who provided data on anthropometry and smoking habits at baseline and after a follow-up of 5years on average. Adjusted mixed-effects linear regression models were used to obtain sex-specific summary estimates of the association between the change in smoking status and the annual change in weight. RESULTS: Smoking cessation tends to be followed by weight gain; when compared to stable smokers, annual weight gain was higher in men (0.44kg (95%CI: 0.36; 0.52)) and women (0.46kg (95%CI: 0.41; 0.52)) who stopped smoking during follow-up. When smokers who stopped smoking at least 1year before recruitment were compared to never smokers, no major differences in annual weight gain were observed. The excess weight gain following smoking cessation appears to mainly occur in the first years following the cessation. CONCLUSIONS: When considering the benefits of smoking cessation, such findings strengthen the need for promoting cessation offering information on weight gain control and support to weight-concerned smokers in order to remove a barrier to quitting

Prediagnostic concentrations of plasma genistein and prostate cancer risk in 1,605 men with prostate cancer and 1,697 matched control participants in EPIC

Travis R.C., Allen N.E., Appleby P.N., Price A., Kaaks R., Chang-Claude J., Boeing H., Aleksandrova K., Tjonneland A., Johnsen N.F., Overvad K., Ramon Quiros J., Gonzalez C.A., Molina-Montes E., Sanchez M.J., Larranaga N., Castano J.M., Ardanaz E., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Trichopoulou A., Karapetyan T., Rafnsson S.B., Palli D., Krogh V., Tumino R., Vineis P., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Stattin P., Johansson M., Fedirko V., Norat T., Siddiq A., Riboli E., Key T.J.

Cancer Causes Control; 2012; 23(7): 1163-1171

Abstract as provided by PubMed

PURPOSE: Data from prospective epidemiological studies in Asian populations and from experimental studies in animals and cell lines suggest a possible protective association between dietary isoflavones and the development of prostate cancer. We examined the association between circulating concentrations of genistein and prostate cancer risk in a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. METHODS: Concentrations of the isoflavone genistein were measured in prediagnostic plasma samples for 1,605 prostate cancer cases and 1,697 matched control participants. Relative risks (RRs) for prostate cancer in relation to plasma concentrations of genistein were estimated by conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Plasma genistein concentrations were not associated with prostate cancer risk; the multivariate relative risk for men in the highest fifth of genistein compared with men in the lowest fifth was 1.00 (95 % confidence interval: 0.79, 1.27; p linear trend = 0.82). There was no evidence of heterogeneity in this association by age at blood collection, country of recruitment, or cancer stage or histological grade. CONCLUSION: Plasma genistein concentration was not associated with prostate cancer risk in this large cohort of European men

Fruit and vegetable consumption and prospective weight change in participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of Smoking, Eating Out of Home, and Obesity study

Vergnaud A.C., Norat T., Romaguera D., Mouw T., May A.M., Romieu I., Freisling H., Slimani N., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Morois S., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Boeing H., Buijsse B., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Overvad K., Jakobsen M.U., Rodriguez L., Agudo A., Sanchez M.J., Amiano P., Huerta J.M., Gurrea A.B., Wareham N., Khaw K.T., Crowe F., Orfanos P., Naska A., Trichopoulou A., Masala G., Pala V., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Mattiello A., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., van Duijnhoven F.J., Drake I., Wirfalt E., Johansson I., Hallmans G., Engeset D., Braaten T., Parr C.L., Odysseos A., Riboli E., Peeters P.H.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2012; 95(1): 184-193

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Fruit and vegetable consumption might prevent weight gain through their low energy density and high dietary fiber content. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the association between the baseline consumption of fruit and vegetables and weight change in participants from 10 European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. DESIGN: Diet was assessed at baseline in 373,803 participants by using country-specific validated questionnaires. Weight was measured at baseline and self-reported at follow-up in most centers. Associations between baseline fruit and vegetable intakes (per 100 g/d) and weight change (g/y) after a mean follow-up of 5 y were assessed by using linear mixed-models, with age, sex, total energy intake, and other potential confounders controlled for. RESULTS: After exclusion of subjects with chronic diseases at baseline and subjects who were likely to misreport energy intakes, baseline fruit and vegetable intakes were not associated with weight change overall. However, baseline fruit and vegetable intakes were inversely associated with weight change in men and women who quit smoking during follow-up. We observed weak positive associations between vegetable intake and weight change in women who were overweight, were former smokers, or had high prudent dietary pattern scores and weak inverse associations between fruit intake and weight change in women who were >50 y of age, were of normal weight, were never smokers, or had low prudent dietary pattern scores. CONCLUSIONS: In this large study, higher baseline fruit and vegetable intakes, while maintaining total energy intakes constant, did not substantially influence midterm weight change overall but could help to reduce risk of weight gain in persons who stop smoking. The interactions observed in women deserve additional attention

Association between flavonoid and lignan intakes and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutritio

Zamora-Ros R., Lujan-Barroso L., Romieu I., Slimani N., Scalbert A., Gonzalez C.

8th international conference on diet and activity methods methodological challenges for measuring the achievements of international policies. Rome 14-17 May 2012; 2012; 274
Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and gastric adenocarcinoma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

Zamora-Ros R., Agudo A., Lujan-Barroso L., Romieu I., Ferrari P., Knaze V., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Leenders M., Travis R.C., Navarro C., Sanchez-Cantalejo E., Slimani N., Scalbert A., Fedirko V., Hjartaker A., Engeset D., Skeie G., Boeing H., Forster J., Li K., Teucher B., Agnoli C., Tumino R., Mattiello A., Saieva C., Johansson I., Stenling R., Redondo M.L., Wallstrom P., Ericson U., Khaw K.T., Mulligan A.A., Trichopoulou A., Dilis V., Katsoulis M., Peeters P.H., Igali L., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Touillaud M., Perquier F., Fagherazzi G., Amiano P., Ardanaz E., Bredsdorff L., Overvad K., Ricceri F., Riboli E., Gonzalez C.A.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2012; 96(6): 1398-1408

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Several experimental studies have suggested potential anticarcinogenic effects of flavonoids, although epidemiologic evidence for the impact of dietary flavonoids on risk of gastric cancer (GC) is limited. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between intake of dietary flavonoids and lignans and incident GC. DESIGN: The study followed 477,312 subjects (29.8% men) aged 35-70 y from 10 European countries who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Validated dietary questionnaires and lifestyle information were collected at baseline. A food-composition database on flavonoids and lignans was compiled by using data from USDA and Phenol-Explorer databases. RESULTS: During an average follow-up of 11 y, 683 incident GC cases (57.8% men) were mostly validated by a panel of pathologists and used in this analysis. We observed a significant inverse association between total flavonoid intake and GC risk in women (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.94; for the continuous variable after log(2) transformation) but not in men (HR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.09). In women, significant inverse associations with GC risk were also observed for intakes of some flavonoid subgroups (anthocyanidins, flavonols, flavones, and flavanols), particularly with intestinal type tumors for total flavonoid and flavanol intakes (P-heterogeneity < 0.1). After stratification by smoking status and sex, there was no significant heterogeneity in these associations between ever- and never-smokers. CONCLUSION: Total dietary flavonoid intake is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of GC in women

Dietary intakes and food sources of phytoestrogens in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) 24-hour dietary recall cohort

Zamora-Ros R., Knaze V., Lujan-Barroso L., Kuhnle G.G., Mulligan A.A., Touillaud M., Slimani N., Romieu I., Powell N., Tumino R., Peeters P.H., de Magistris M.S., Ricceri F., Sonestedt E., Drake I., Hjartaker A., Skie G., Mouw T., Wark P.A., Romaguera D., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Ros M., Molina E., Sieri S., Quiros J.R., Huerta J.M., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Masala G., Teucher B., Kaas R., Travis R.C., Dilis V., Benetou V., Trichopoulou A., Amiano P., Ardanaz E., Boeing H., Forster J., Clavel-Chapelon F., Fagherazzi G., Perquier F., Johansson G., Johansson I., Cassidy A., Overvad K., Gonzalez C.A.

Eur J Clin Nutr; 2012; 66(8): 932-941

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Phytoestrogens are estradiol-like natural compounds found in plants that have been associated with protective effects against chronic diseases, including some cancers, cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to estimate the dietary intake of phytoestrogens, identify their food sources and their association with lifestyle factors in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Single 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from 36 037 individuals from 10 European countries, aged 35-74 years using a standardized computerized interview programe (EPIC-Soft). An ad hoc food composition database on phytoestrogens (isoflavones, lignans, coumestans, enterolignans and equol) was compiled using data from available databases, in order to obtain and describe phytoestrogen intakes and their food sources across 27 redefined EPIC centres. RESULTS: Mean total phytoestrogen intake was the highest in the UK health-conscious group (24.9 mg/day in men and 21.1 mg/day in women) whereas lowest in Greece (1.3 mg/day) in men and Spain-Granada (1.0 mg/day) in women. Northern European countries had higher intakes than southern countries. The main phytoestrogen contributors were isoflavones in both UK centres and lignans in the other EPIC cohorts. Age, body mass index, educational level, smoking status and physical activity were related to increased intakes of lignans, enterolignans and equol, but not to total phytoestrogen, isoflavone or coumestan intakes. In the UK cohorts, the major food sources of phytoestrogens were soy products. In the other EPIC cohorts the dietary sources were more distributed, among fruits, vegetables, soy products, cereal products, non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high variability in the dietary intake of total and phytoestrogen subclasses and their food sources across European regions

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20