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Search Result (500 REFERENCES)

2012

The association of circulating adiponectin levels with pancreatic cancer risk: a study within the prospective EPIC cohort

Grote V.A., Rohrmann S., Dossus L., Nieters A., Halkjaer J., Tjonneland A., Overvad K., Stegger J., Chabbert-Buffet N., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Teucher B., Becker S., Montonen J., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Trichopoulos D., Palli D., Sieri S., Tumino R., Vineis P., Mattiello A., Arguelles M., Duell E.J., Molina-Montes E., Larranaga N., Chirlaque M.D., Gurrea A.B., Jeurnink S.M., Peeters P.H., Ye W., Sund M., Lindkvist B., Johansen D., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Crowe F.L., Romieu I., Rinaldi S., Jenab M., Romaguera D., Michaud D.S., Riboli E., Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita H., Kaaks R.

Int J Cancer; 2012; 130(10): 2428-2437

PMID:21681743

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Excess body weight and type 2 diabetes mellitus, risk factors of pancreatic cancer, are characterized by decreased levels of adiponectin. In addition to anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative actions, adiponectin has an important role in regulating glucose metabolism, i.e., decreasing circulating blood glucose levels. Prospectively, hyperglycemia has been associated with risk of pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of pre-diagnostic adiponectin levels with pancreatic cancer risk. We conducted a case-control study nested within European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Blood samples of 452 pancreatic cancer cases and 452 individually matched controls were analyzed by immunoassays. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Overall, adiponectin showed no association with pancreas cancer risk; however, among never smokers, higher circulating levels of adiponectin were associated with a reduction in pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 0.44 [95% CI 0.23-0.82] for highest vs. lowest quartile), whereas among current smokers there was no significant association (OR = 1.59 [95% CI 0.67-3.76] for highest vs. lowest quartile; p-trend = 0.530; p-interaction = 0.309). In our study, lower adiponectin concentrations may be associated with the development of pancreatic cancer among never smokers, whereas the only other prospective study being conducted so far showed a decrease in risk among male smokers. Therefore, further studies are needed to clarify the role of adiponectin in pancreatic cancer development

The associations of advanced glycation end products and its soluble receptor with pancreatic cancer risk: a case-control study within the prospective EPIC Cohort

Grote V.A., Nieters A., Kaaks R., Tjonneland A., Roswall N., Overvad K., Nielsen M.R., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Racine A., Teucher B., Lukanova A., Boeing H., Drogan D., Trichopoulou A., Trichopoulos D., Lagiou P., Palli D., Sieri S., Tumino R., Vineis P., Mattiello A., Arguelles Suarez M.V., Duell E.J., Sanchez M.J., Dorronsoro M., Huerta Castano J.M., Barricarte A., Jeurnink S.M., Peeters P.H., Sund M., Ye W., Regner S., Lindkvist B., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Crowe F.L., Fedirko V., Jenab M., Romaguera D., Siddiq A., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Rohrmann S.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2012; 21(4): 619-628

PMID:22301828

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end products (AGE) and their receptors (RAGE) have been implicated in cancer development through their proinflammatory capabilities. However, prospective data on their association with cancer of specific sites, including pancreatic cancer, are limited. METHODS: Prediagnostic blood levels of the AGE product Nepsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and the endogenous secreted receptor for AGE (esRAGE) were measured using ELISA in 454 patients with exocrine pancreatic cancer and individually matched controls within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Pancreatic cancer risk was estimated by calculating ORs with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Elevated CML levels tended to be associated with a reduction in pancreatic cancer risk [OR = 0.57 (95% CI, 0.32-1.01) comparing highest with lowest quintile), whereas no association was observed for esRAGE (OR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.62-1.54). Adjustments for body mass index and smoking attenuated the inverse associations of CML with pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.41-1.49). There was an inverse association between esRAGE and risk of pancreatic cancer for cases that were diagnosed within the first 2 years of follow-up [OR = 0.46 (95% CI, 0.22-0.96) for a doubling in concentration], whereas there was no association among those with a longer follow-up (OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.88-1.39; P(interaction) = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPACT: Our results do not provide evidence for an association of higher CML or lower esRAGE levels with risk of pancreatic cancer. The role of AGE/RAGE in pancreatic cancer would benefit from further investigations

Inflammation marker and risk of pancreatic cancer: a nested case-control study within the EPIC cohort

Grote V.A., Kaaks R., Nieters A., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Overvad K., Skjelbo Nielsen M.R., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Racine A., Teucher B., Becker S., Pischon T., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Cassapa C., Stratigakou V., Palli D., Krogh V., Tumino R., Vineis P., Panico S., Rodriguez L., Duell E.J., Sanchez M.J., Dorronsoro M., Navarro C., Gurrea A.B., Siersema P.D., Hm Peeters P., Ye W., Sund M., Lindkvist B., Johansen D., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Travis R.C., Fedirko V., Jenab M., Michaud D.S., Chuang S.C., Romaguera D., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Rohrmann S.

Br J Cancer; 2012; 106(11): 1866-1874

PMID:22617158

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Background:Established risk factors for pancreatic cancer include smoking, long-standing diabetes, high body fatness, and chronic pancreatitis, all of which can be characterised by aspects of inflammatory processes. However, prospective studies investigating the relation between inflammatory markers and pancreatic cancer risk are scarce.Methods:We conducted a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, measuring prediagnostic blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble receptors of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (sTNF-R1, R2) in 455 pancreatic cancer cases and 455 matched controls. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression models.Results:None of the inflammatory markers were significantly associated with risk of pancreatic cancer overall, although a borderline significant association was observed for higher circulating sTNF-R2 (crude OR=1.52 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97-2.39), highest vs lowest quartile). In women, however, higher sTNF-R1 levels were significantly associated with risk of pancreatic cancer (crude OR=1.97 (95% CI 1.02-3.79)). For sTNF-R2, risk associations seemed to be stronger for diabetic individuals and those with a higher BMI.Conclusion:Prospectively, CRP and IL-6 do not seem to have a role in our study with respect to risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas sTNF-R1 seemed to be a risk factor in women and sTNF-R2 might be a mediator in the risk relationship between overweight and diabetes with pancreatic cancer. Further large prospective studies are needed to clarify the role of proinflammatory proteins and cytokines in the pathogenesis of exocrine pancreatic cancer

A risk model for lung cancer incidence

Hoggart C., Brennan P., Tjonneland A., Vogel U., Overvad K., Ostergaard J.N., Kaaks R., Canzian F., Boeing H., Steffen A., Trichopoulou A., Bamia C., Trichopoulos D., Johansson M., Palli D., Krogh V., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Panico S., Boshuizen H., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Peeters P.H., Lund E., Gram I.T., Braaten T., Rodriguez L., Agudo A., Sanchez-Cantalejo E., Arriola L., Chirlaque M.D., Barricarte A., Rasmuson T., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Riboli E., Vineis P.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila); 2012; 5(6): 834-846

PMID:22496387

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Risk models for lung cancer incidence would be useful for prioritizing individuals for screening and participation in clinical trials of chemoprevention. We present a risk model for lung cancer built using prospective cohort data from a general population which predicts individual incidence in a given time period. We build separate risk models for current and former smokers using 169,035 ever smokers from the multicenter European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and considered a model for never smokers. The data set was split into independent training and test sets. Lung cancer incidence was modeled using survival analysis, stratifying by age started smoking, and for former smokers, also smoking duration. Other risk factors considered were smoking intensity, 10 occupational/environmental exposures previously implicated with lung cancer, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms at two loci identified by genome-wide association studies of lung cancer. Individual risk in the test set was measured by the predicted probability of lung cancer incidence in the year preceding last follow-up time, predictive accuracy was measured by the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). Using smoking information alone gave good predictive accuracy: the AUC and 95% confidence interval in ever smokers was 0.843 (0.810-0.875), the Bach model applied to the same data gave an AUC of 0.775 (0.737-0.813). Other risk factors had negligible effect on the AUC, including never smokers for whom prediction was poor. Our model is generalizable and straightforward to implement. Its accuracy can be attributed to its modeling of lifetime exposure to smoking. Cancer Prev Res; 5(6); 834-46. (c)2012 AACR

Validity of a short questionnaire to assess physical activity in 10 European countries

InterAct Consortium

Eur J Epidemiol; 2012; 27(1): 15-25

PMID:22089423

Abstract as provided by PubMed

To accurately examine associations of physical activity (PA) with disease outcomes, a valid method of assessing free-living activity is required. We examined the validity of a brief PA questionnaire (PAQ) used in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). PA energy expenditure (PAEE) and time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured in 1,941 healthy individuals from 10 European countries using individually-calibrated combined heart-rate and movement sensing. Participants also completed the short EPIC-PAQ, which refers to past year's activity. Pearson (r) and Spearman (sigma) correlation coefficients were calculated for each country, and random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate the combined correlation across countries to estimate the validity of two previously- and one newly-derived ordered, categorical PA indices ("Cambridge index", "total PA index", and "recreational index") that categorized individuals as inactive, moderately inactive, moderately active, or active. The strongest associations with PAEE and MVPA were observed for the Cambridge index (r = 0.33 and r = 0.25, respectively). No significant heterogeneity by country was observed for this index (I(2) = 36.3%, P = 0.12; I(2) = 0.0%, P = 0.85), whereas heterogeneity was suggested for other indices (I(2) > 48%, P < 0.05, I(2) > 47%, P < 0.05). PAEE increased linearly across self-reported PA categories (P for trend <0.001), with an average difference of approximately 460 kJ/d for men and 365 kJ/d for women, between categories of the Cambridge index. The EPIC-PAQ is suitable for categorizing European men and women into four distinct categories of overall physical activity. The difference in PAEE between categories may be useful when estimating effect sizes from observational research

Dietary intake of heme iron and risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

Jakszyn P., Agudo A., Lujan-Barroso L., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Jenab M., Navarro C., Palli D., Boeing H., Manjer J., Numans M.E., Igali L., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Morois S., Grioni S., Panico C., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Quiros J.R., Molina-Montes E., Ma Huerta Castano J., Barricarte A., Amiano P., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Key T.J., Jeurnink S.M., Peeters P.H., Bamia C., Valanou E., Trichopoulou A., Kaaks R., Lukanova A., Bergmann M.M., Lindkvist B., Stenling R., Johansson I., Dahm C.C., Overvad K., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Skeie G., Ragnhild Broderstad A., Lund E., Michaud D.S., Mouw T., Riboli E., Gonzalez C.A.

Int J Cancer; 2012; 130(11): 2654-2663

PMID:21717452

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Even though recent studies suggest that a high intake of heme iron is associated with several types of cancer, epidemiological studies in relation to gastric cancer (GC) are lacking. Our previous results show a positive association between red and processed meat and non cardia gastric cancer, especially in Helicobacter pylori infected subjects. The aim of the study is to investigate the association between heme iron intake and GC risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EURGAST-EPIC). Dietary intake was assessed by validated center-specific questionnaires. Heme iron was calculated as a type-specific percentage of the total iron content in meat intake, derived from the literature. Antibodies of H. pylori infection and vitamin C levels were measured in a sub-sample of cases and matched controls included in a nested case-control study within the cohort. The study included 481,419 individuals and 444 incident cases of GC that occurred during an average of 8.7 years of followup. We observed a statistically significant association between heme iron intake and GC risk (HR 1.13 95% CI: 1.01-1.26 for a doubling of intake) adjusted by sex, age, BMI, education level, tobacco smoking and energy intake. The positive association between heme iron and the risk of GC was statistically significant in subjects with plasma vitamin C <39 mmol/l only (log2 HR 1.54 95% CI (1.01-2.35). We found a positive association between heme iron intake and gastric cancer risk

Nitrosamines and heme iron and risk of prostate cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Jakszyn P.G., Allen N.E., Lujan-Barroso L., Gonzalez C.A., Key T.J., Fonseca-Nunes A., Tjonneland A., Fons-Johnsen N., Overvad K., Teucher B., Li K., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Oikonomou E., Sarantopoulou M., Saieva C., Krogh V., Tumino R., Ricceri F., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Huerta J.M., Ardanaz E., Arguelles M.V., Molina-Montes E., Larranaga N., Wirfalt E., Wallstrom P., Johansson M., Stattin P., Khaw K.T., Jenab M., Fedirko V., Riboli E.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2012; 21(3): 547-551

PMID:22253298

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: The evidence about nitrosamines and heme iron intake and cancer risk is limited, despite the biologic plausibility of the hypothesis that these factors might increase cancer risk. We investigated the association between dietary nitrosamines and heme iron and the risk of prostate cancer among participants of European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: Data on food consumption and complete follow-up for cancer occurrence was available for 139,005 men, recruited in 8 European countries. Estimates of HRs were obtained by proportional hazard models, stratified by age at recruitment, and study center, and adjusted for total energy intake, smoking status, marital status, dairy products, educational level, and body mass index. RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 10 years, 4,606 participants were diagnosed with first incident prostate cancer. There was no overall association between prostate cancer risk and nitrosamines exposure (preformed and endogenous) or heme iron intake (HR for a doubling of intake: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.98-1.03 for N-Nitrosodimethlyamine, 0.95; 95% CI: 0.88-1.03 for endogenous Nitrosocompounds, and 1.00; 95 CI: 0.97-1.03 for heme iron). Conclusions and Impact: Our findings do not support an effect of nitrosamines (endogenous and exogenous) and heme iron intake on prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 21(3); 547-51. (c)2012 AACR

Variety in vegetable and fruit consumption and the risk of gastric and esophageal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Jeurnink S.M., Buchner F.L., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Siersema P.D., Boshuizen H.C., Numans M.E., Dahm C.C., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Roswall N., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Morois S., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Boeing H., Buijsse B., Trichopoulou A., Benetou V., Zylis D., Palli D., Sieri S., Vineis P., Tumino R., Panico S., Ocke M.C., Peeters P.H., Skeie G., Brustad M., Lund E., Sanchez-Cantalejo E., Navarro C., Amiano P., Ardanaz E., Ramon Quiros J., Hallmans G., Johansson I., Lindkvist B., Regner S., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Key T.J., Slimani N., Norat T., Vergnaud A.C., Romaguera D., Gonzalez C.A.

Int J Cancer; 2012; 131(6): E963-E973

PMID:22392502

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Diets high in vegetables and fruits have been suggested to be inversely associated with risk of gastric cancer. However, the evidence of the effect of variety of consumption is limited. We therefore investigated whether consumption of a variety of vegetables and fruit is associated with gastric and esophageal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Data on food consumption and follow-up on cancer incidence were available for 452,269 participants from 10 European countries. After a mean follow-up of 8.4 years, 475 cases of gastric and esophageal adenocarcinomas (180 noncardia, 185 cardia, gastric esophageal junction and esophagus, 110 not specified) and 98 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas were observed. Diet Diversity Scores were used to quantify the variety in vegetable and fruit consumption. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard models to calculate risk ratios. Independent from quantity of consumption, variety in the consumption of vegetables and fruit combined and of fruit consumption alone were statistically significantly inversely associated with the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (continuous hazard ratio per 2 products increment 0.88; 95% CI 0.79-0.97 and 0.76; 95% CI 0.62-0.94, respectively) with the latter particularly seen in ever smokers. Variety in vegetable and/or fruit consumption was not associated with risk of gastric and esophageal adenocarcinomas. Independent from quantity of consumption, more variety in vegetable and fruit consumption combined and in fruit consumption alone may decrease the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. However, residual confounding by lifestyle factors cannot be excluded

Intake estimation of total and individual flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins and theaflavins, their food sources and determinants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

Knaze V., Zamora-Ros R., Lujan-Barroso L., Romieu I., Scalbert A., Slimani N., Riboli E., van Rossum C.T., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Trichopoulou A., Dilis V., Tsiotas K., Skeie G., Engeset D., Ramon Quiros J., Molina E., Huerta J.M., Crowe F., Wirfal E., Ericson U., Peeters P.H., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Johansson G., Johansson I., Tumino R., Boeing H., Drogan D., Amiano P., Mattiello A., Khaw K.T., Luben R., Krogh V., Ardanaz E., Sacerdote C., Salvini S., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Fagherazzi G., Perquier F., Gonzalez C.A.

Br J Nutr; 2012; 108(6): 1095-1108

PMID:22186699

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Epidemiological studies suggest health-protective effects of flavan-3-ols and their derived compounds on chronic diseases. The present study aimed to estimate dietary flavan-3-ol, proanthocyanidin (PA) and theaflavin intakes, their food sources and potential determinants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration cohort. Dietary data were collected using a standardised 24 h dietary recall software administered to 36 037 subjects aged 35-74 years. Dietary data were linked with a flavanoid food composition database compiled from the latest US Department of Agriculture and Phenol-Explorer databases and expanded to include recipes, estimations and retention factors. Total flavan-3-ol intake was the highest in UK Health-conscious men (453.6 mg/d) and women of UK General population (377.6 mg/d), while the intake was the lowest in Greece (men: 160.5 mg/d; women: 124.8 mg/d). Monomer intake was the highest in UK General population (men: 213.5 mg/d; women: 178.6 mg/d) and the lowest in Greece (men: 26.6 mg/d in men; women: 20.7 mg/d). Theaflavin intake was the highest in UK General population (men: 29.3 mg/d; women: 25.3 mg/d) and close to zero in Greece and Spain. PA intake was the highest in Asturias (men: 455.2 mg/d) and San Sebastian (women: 253 mg/d), while being the lowest in Greece (men: 134.6 mg/d; women: 101.0 mg/d). Except for the UK, non-citrus fruits (apples/pears) were the highest contributors to the total flavan-3-ol intake. Tea was the main contributor of total flavan-3-ols in the UK. Flavan-3-ol, PA and theaflavin intakes were significantly different among all assessed groups. This study showed heterogeneity in flavan-3-ol, PA and theaflavin intake throughout the EPIC countries

Plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer in the EPIC cohort study

Leenders M., Chuang S.C., Dahm C.C., Overvad K., Ueland P.M., Midttun O., Vollset S.E., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Jenab M., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Kaaks R., Canzian F., Boeing H., Weikert C., Trichopoulou A., Bamia C., Naska A., Palli D., Pala V., Mattiello A., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., van Duijnhoven F.J., Peeters P.H., Van Gils C.H., Lund E., Rodriguez L., Duell E.J., Perez M.J., Molina-Montes E., Castano J.M., Barricarte A., Larranaga N., Johansen D., Lindkvist B., Sund M., Ye W., Khaw K.T., Wareham N.J., Michaud D.S., Riboli E., Xun W.W., Allen N.E., Crowe F.L., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Vineis P.

Int J Cancer; 2012; 131(4): 997-1002

PMID:21953524

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Smoking is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer, previously investigated by the means of questionnaires. Using cotinine as a biomarker for tobacco exposure allows more accurate quantitative analyses to be performed. This study on pancreatic cancer, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC cohort), included 146 cases and 146 matched controls. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, plasma cotinine levels were analyzed on average 8.0 years before cancer onset (5-95% range: 2.8-12.0 years). The relation between plasma cotinine levels and pancreatic cancer was analyzed with conditional logistic regression for different levels of cotinine in a population of never and current smokers. This was also done for the self-reported number of smoked cigarettes per day at baseline. Every increase of 350 nmol/L of plasma cotinine was found to significantly elevate risk of pancreatic cancer [odds ratio (OR): 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.60]. People with a cotinine level over 1187.8 nmol/L, a level comparable to smoking 17 cigarettes per day, have an elevated risk of pancreatic cancer, compared to people with cotinine levels below 55 nmol/L (OR: 3.66, 95% CI: 1.44-9.26). The results for self-reported smoking at baseline also show an increased risk of pancreatic cancer from cigarette smoking based on questionnaire information. People who smoke more than 30 cigarettes per day showed the highest risk compared to never smokers (OR: 4.15, 95% CI: 1.02-16.42). This study is the first to show that plasma cotinine levels are strongly related to pancreatic cancer

Biomarkers of oxidative stress and risk of developing colorectal cancer: a cohort-nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition

Leufkens A.M., van Duijnhoven F.J., Woudt S.H., Siersema P.D., Jenab M., Jansen E.H., Pischon T., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Overvad K., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Morois S., Palli D., Pala V., Tumino R., Vineis P., Panico S., Kaaks R., Lukanova A., Boeing H., Aleksandrova K., Trichopoulou A., Trichopoulos D., Dilis V., Peeters P.H., Skeie G., Gonzalez C.A., Arguelles M., Sanchez M.J., Dorronsoro M., Huerta J.M., Ardanaz E., Hallmans G., Palmqvist R., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Crowe F.L., Fedirko V., Norat T., Riboli E., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B.

Am J Epidemiol; 2012; 175(7): 653-663

PMID:22422922

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in carcinogenesis, but prospective evidence for an association between biomarkers of oxidative stress and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is limited. The authors investigated the association between prediagnostic serum levels of oxidative stress indicators (i.e., reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP)) and CRC risk. This was examined in a nested case-control study (1,064 CRC cases, 1,064 matched controls) in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (1992-2003). Incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using conditional logistic regression analyses. ROM were associated with overall CRC risk (highest tertile vs. lowest: adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR(adj)) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47, 2.48), proximal (IRR(adj) = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.06, 3.36) and distal (IRR(adj) = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.37, 3.89) colon cancer, and rectal cancer (IRR(adj) = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.72). When results were stratified by tertile of follow-up time, the association remained significant only in participants with less than 2.63 years of follow-up (IRR(adj) = 2.28, 95% CI: 1.78, 2.94; P-heterogeneity < 0.01). FRAP was not associated with CRC risk. In conclusion, prediagnostic serum ROM levels were associated with increased risk of CRC. However, this association was seen only in subjects with relatively short follow-up, suggesting that the association results from production of reactive oxygen species by preclinical tumors

Educational level and risk of colorectal cancer in EPIC with specific reference to tumor location

Leufkens A.M., van Duijnhoven F.J., Boshuizen H.C., Siersema P.D., Kunst A.E., Mouw T., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Overvad K., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Morois S., Krogh V., Tumino R., Panico S., Polidoro S., Palli D., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Pischon T., Trichopoulou A., Orfanos P., Goufa I., Peeters P.H., Skeie G., Braaten T., Rodriguez L., Lujan-Barroso L., Sanchez-Perez M.J., Navarro C., Barricarte A., Zackrisson S., Almquist M., Hallmans G., Palmqvist R., Tsilidis K.K., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Gallo V., Jenab M., Riboli E., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B.

Int J Cancer; 2012; 130(3): 622-630

PMID:21412763

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Existing evidence is inconclusive on whether socioeconomic status (SES) and educational inequalities influence colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, and whether low or high SES/educational level is associated with developing CRC. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between educational level and CRC. We studied data from 400,510 participants in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study, of whom 2,447 developed CRC (colon: 1,551, rectum: 896, mean follow-up 8.3 years). Cox proportional hazard regression analysis stratified by age, gender and center, and adjusted for potential confounders were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Relative indices of inequality (RII) for education were estimated using Cox regression models. We conducted separate analyses for tumor location, gender and geographical region. Compared with participants with college/university education, participants with vocational secondary education or less had a nonsignificantly lower risk of developing CRC. When further stratified for tumor location, adjusted risk estimates for the proximal colon were statistically significant for primary education or less (HR 0.73, 95%CI 0.57-0.94) and for vocational secondary education (HR 0.76, 95%CI 0.58-0.98). The inverse association between low education and CRC risk was particularly found in women and Southern Europe. These associations were statistically significant for CRC, for colon cancer and for proximal colon cancer. In conclusion, CRC risk, especially in the proximal colon, is lower in subjects with a lower educational level compared to those with a higher educational level. This association is most pronounced in women and Southern Europe

Dietary intake of iron, heme-iron and magnesium and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort

Molina-Montes E., Wark P.A., Sanchez M.J., Norat T., Jakszyn P., Lujan-Barroso L., Michaud D.S., Crowe F., Allen N., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Trichopoulou A., Adarakis G., Katarachia H., Skeie G., Henningsen M., Broderstad A.R., Berrino F., Tumino R., Palli D., Mattiello A., Vineis P., Amiano P., Barricarte A., Huerta J.M., Duell E.J., Quiros J.R., Ye W., Sund M., Lindkvist B., Johansen D., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Roswall N., Li K., Grote V.A., Steffen A., Boeing H., Racine A., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Carbonnel F., Peeters P.H., Siersema P.D., Fedirko V., Jenab M., Riboli E., Bueno-de-Mesquita B.

Int J Cancer; 2012; 131(7): E1134-E1147

PMID:22438075

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Several studies support a protective effect of dietary magnesium against type 2 diabetes, but a harmful effect for iron. As diabetes has been linked to pancreatic cancer, intake of these nutrients may be also associated with this cancer. We examined the association between dietary intake of magnesium, total iron and heme-iron and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In total, 142,203 men and 334,999 women, recruited between 1992 and 2000, were included. After an average follow-up of 11.3 years, 396 men and 469 women developed exocrine pancreatic cancer. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using Cox regression stratified by age and center, and adjusted for energy intake, smoking status, height, weight, and self-reported diabetes status. Neither intake of magnesium, total iron nor heme-iron was associated with pancreatic cancer risk. In stratified analyses, a borderline inverse association was observed among overweight men (body mass index, >/=25 kg/m(2) ) with magnesium (HR(per 100 mg/day increase) = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.63-1.01) although this was less apparent using calibrated intake. In female smokers, a higher intake of heme-iron was associated with a higher pancreatic cancer risk (HR (per 1 mg/day increase) = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.10-1.74). After calibration, this risk increased significantly to 2.5-fold (95% CI = 1.22-5.28). Overall, dietary magnesium, total iron and heme-iron were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk during the follow-up period. Our observation that heme-iron was associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk in female smokers warrants replication in additional study populations

Dietary Fibre Intake and Risks of Cancers of the Colon and Rectum in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Murphy N., Norat T., Ferrari P., Jenab M., Bueno-de-Mesquita B., Skeie G., Dahm C.C., Overvad K., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Racine A., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Boeing H., Bergmann M.M., Trichopoulou A., Trichopoulos D., Lagiou P., Palli D., Pala V., Panico S., Tumino R., Vineis P., Siersema P., van Duijnhoven F., Peeters P.H., Hjartaker A., Engeset D., Gonzalez C.A., Sanchez M.J., Dorronsoro M., Navarro C., Ardanaz E., Quiros J.R., Sonestedt E., Ericson U., Nilsson L., Palmqvist R., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Key T.J., Crowe F.L., Fedirko V., Wark P.A., Chuang S.C., Riboli E.

PLoS ONE; 2012; 7(6): e39361

PMID:22761771

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Earlier analyses within the EPIC study showed that dietary fibre intake was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, but results from some large cohort studies do not support this finding. We explored whether the association remained after longer follow-up with a near threefold increase in colorectal cancer cases, and if the association varied by gender and tumour location. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After a mean follow-up of 11.0 years, 4,517 incident cases of colorectal cancer were documented. Total, cereal, fruit, and vegetable fibre intakes were estimated from dietary questionnaires at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models stratified by age, sex, and centre, and adjusted for total energy intake, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, education, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy, oral contraceptive use, and intakes of alcohol, folate, red and processed meats, and calcium. After multivariable adjustments, total dietary fibre was inversely associated with colorectal cancer (HR per 10 g/day increase in fibre 0.87, 95% CI: 0.79-0.96). Similar linear associations were observed for colon and rectal cancers. The association between total dietary fibre and risk of colorectal cancer risk did not differ by age, sex, or anthropometric, lifestyle, and dietary variables. Fibre from cereals and fibre from fruit and vegetables were similarly associated with colon cancer; but for rectal cancer, the inverse association was only evident for fibre from cereals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results strengthen the evidence for the role of high dietary fibre intake in colorectal cancer prevention

Comparison of standardised dietary folate intake across ten countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Park J.Y., Nicolas G., Freisling H., Biessy C., Scalbert A., Romieu I., Chajes V., Chuang S.C., Ericson U., Wallstrom P., Ros M.M., Peeters P.H., Mattiello A., Palli D., Maria Huerta J., Amiano P., Halkjaer J., Dahm C.C., Trichopoulou A., Orfanos P., Teucher B., Feller S., Skeie G., Engeset D., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Crowe F., Khaw K.T., Vineis P., Slimani N.

Br J Nutr; 2012; 108(3): 552-569

PMID:22040523

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Folate plays an important role in the synthesis and methylation of DNA as a cofactor in one-carbon metabolism. Inadequate folate intake has been linked to adverse health events. However, comparable information on dietary folate intake across European countries has never been reported. The objective of the present study was to describe the dietary folate intake and its food sources in ten countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 36 034 participants (aged 35-74 years) who completed a single 24 h dietary recall using a computerised interview software program, EPIC-Soft(R) (International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon). Dietary folate intake was estimated using the standardised EPIC Nutrient DataBase, adjusted for age, energy intake, weight and height and weighted by season and day of recall. Adjusted mean dietary folate intake in most centres ranged from 250 to 350 mug/d in men and 200 to 300 mug/d in women. Folate intake tended to be lower among current smokers and heavier alcohol drinkers and to increase with educational level, especially in women. Supplement users (any types) were likely to report higher dietary folate intake in most centres. Vegetables, cereals and fruits, nuts and seeds were the main contributors to folate intake. Nonetheless, the type and pattern of consumption of these main food items varied across the centres. These first comparisons of standardised dietary folate intakes across different European populations show moderate regional differences (except the UK health conscious group), and variation by sex, educational level, smoking and alcohol-drinking status, and supplement use

The prospective association between total and type of fish intake and type 2 diabetes in 8 European countries: EPIC-InterAct Study

Patel P.S., Forouhi N.G., Kuijsten A., Schulze M.B., van Woudenbergh G.J., Ardanaz E., Amiano P., Arriola L., Balkau B., Barricarte A., Beulens J.W., Boeing H., Buijsse B., Crowe F.L., de Lauzon-Guillan B., Fagherazzi G., Franks P.W., Gonzalez C., Grioni S., Halkjaer J., Huerta J.M., Key T.J., Kuhn T., Masala G., Nilsson P., Overvad K., Panico S., Quiros J.R., Rolandsson O., Sacerdote C., Sanchez M.J., Schmidt E.B., Slimani N., Spijkerman A.M., Teucher B., Tjonneland A., Tormo M.J., Tumino R., van der A D.L., van der Schouw Y.T., Sharp S.J., Langenberg C., Feskens E.J., Riboli E., Wareham N.J.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2012; 95(6): 1445-1453

PMID:22572642

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence of an association between fish intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is inconsistent and unresolved. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the association between total and type of fish intake and T2D in 8 European countries. DESIGN: This was a case-cohort study, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, with 3.99 million person-years of follow-up, 12,403 incident diabetes cases, and a random subcohort of 16,835 individuals from 8 European countries. Habitual fish intake (lean fish, fatty fish, total fish, shellfish, and combined fish and shellfish) was assessed by country-specific dietary questionnaires. HRs were estimated in each country by using Prentice-weighted Cox regression models and pooled by using a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: No overall association was found between combined fish and shellfish intake and incident T2D per quartile (adjusted HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.06; P-trend = 0.99). Total fish, lean fish, and shellfish intakes separately were also not associated with T2D, but fatty fish intake was weakly inversely associated with T2D: adjusted HR per quartile 0.97 (0.94, 1.00), with an HR of 0.84 (0.70, 1.01), 0.85 (0.76, 0.95), and 0.87 (0.78, 0.97) for a comparison of the second, third, and fourth quartiles with the lowest quartile of intake, respectively (P-trend = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that lean fish, total fish, and shellfish intakes are not associated with incident diabetes but that fatty fish intake may be weakly inversely associated. Replication of these findings in other populations and investigation of the mechanisms underlying these associations are warranted. Meanwhile, current public health recommendations on fish intake should remain unchanged

Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Concentration and Risk of Prostate Cancer: Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Price A.J., Allen N.E., Appleby P.N., Crowe F.L., Travis R.C., Tipper S.J., Overvad K., Gronbaek H., Tjonneland A., Johnsen N.F., Rinaldi S., Kaaks R., Lukanova A., Boeing H., Aleksandrova K., Trichopoulou A., Trichopoulos D., Andarakis G., Palli D., Krogh V., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Arguelles M.V., Sanchez M.J., Chirlaque M.D., Barricarte A., Larranaga N., Gonzalez C.A., Stattin P., Johansson M., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Gunter M., Riboli E., Key T.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2012; 21(9): 1531-1541

PMID:22761305

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: High circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations have been associated with increased risk for prostate cancer in several prospective epidemiological studies. In this study, we investigate the association between circulating IGF-I concentration and risk of prostate cancer over the long term in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. METHODS: In a nested case-control design, 1,542 incident prostate cancer cases from eight European countries were individually matched to 1,542 controls by study center, age at recruitment, duration of follow-up, time of day, and duration of fasting at blood collection. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate risk for prostate cancer associated with IGF-I concentration, overall and by various subgroups. RESULTS: Circulating IGF-I concentration was associated with a significant increased risk for prostate cancer [OR for highest vs. lowest quartile, 1.69; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.35-2.13; P(trend) = 0.0002]. This positive association did not differ according to duration of follow-up [ORs for highest vs. lowest quartile were 2.01 (1.35-2.99), 1.37 (0.94-2.00), and 1.80 (1.17-2.77) for cancers diagnosed <4, 4-7, and >7 years after blood collection, respectively (P(heterogeneity) = 0.77)] or by stage, grade, and age at diagnosis or age at blood collection (all subgroups P(heterogeneity) >0.05). CONCLUSION: In this European population, high circulating IGF-I concentration is positively associated with risk for prostate cancer over the short and long term. Impact: As IGF-I is the only potentially modifiable risk factor so far identified, research into the effects of reducing circulating IGF-I levels on subsequent prostate cancer risk is warranted. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 21(9); 1531-41. (c)2012 AACR

The association of education with long-term weight change in the EPIC-PANACEA cohort

Rohrmann S., Steinbrecher A., Linseisen J., Hermann S., May A., Luan J., Ekelund U., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Fagherazzi G., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Agnoli C., Tumino R., Masala G., Mattiello A., Ricceri F., Travier N., Amiano P., Ardanaz E., Chirlaque M.D., Sanchez M.J., Rodriguez L., Nilsson L.M., Johansson I., Hedblad B., Rosvall M., Lund E., Braaten T., Naska A., Orfanos P., Trichopoulou A., van den Berg S., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Bergmann M.M., Steffen A., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Wareham N.J., Khaw K.T., Crowe F.L., Illner A.K., Slimani N., Gallo V., Mouw T., Norat T., Peeters P.H.

Eur J Clin Nutr; 2012; 66(8): 957-963

PMID:22669330

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Background/objectives:Cross-sectionally, educational attainment is strongly associated with the prevalence of obesity, but this association is less clear for weight change during adult life. The objective of this study is to examine the association between educational attainment and weight change during adult life in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).Subjects/methods:EPIC is a cohort study with 361 467 participants and up to 10 years of follow-up. Educational attainment was categorized according to the highest obtained school level (primary school or less, vocational secondary training, other secondary education and university). Multivariate mixed-effects linear regression models were used to study education in relation to weight at age 20 years (self-reported), to annual change in weight between age 20 years and measured weight at recruitment, and to annual change in weight during follow-up time.Results:Higher educational attainment was associated with on average a lower body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years and a lower increase in weight up to recruitment (highest vs lowest educational attainment in men: -60 g per year (95% confidence interval (CI) -80; -40), women -110 g per year (95% CI -130; -80)). Although during follow-up after recruitment an increase in body weight was observed in all educational levels, gain was lowest in men and women with a university degree (high vs low education -120 g per year (95% CI -150; -90) and -70 g per year (95% CI -90; -60), respectively).Conclusions:Existing differences in BMI between higher and lower educated individuals at early adulthood became more pronounced during lifetime, which possibly impacts on obesity-related chronic disease risk in persons with lower educational attainment

Concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Rohrmann S., Grote V.A., Becker S., Rinaldi S., Tjonneland A., Roswall N., Gronbaek H., Overvad K., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Racine A., Teucher B., Boeing H., Drogan D., Dilis V., Lagiou P., Trichopoulou A., Palli D., Tagliabue G., Tumino R., Vineis P., Mattiello A., Rodriguez L., Duell E.J., Molina-Montes E., Dorronsoro M., Huerta J.M., Ardanaz E., Jeurnink S., Peeters P.H., Lindkvist B., Johansen D., Sund M., Ye W., Khaw K.T., Wareham N.J., Allen N.E., Crowe F.L., Fedirko V., Jenab M., Michaud D.S., Norat T., Riboli E., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Kaaks R.

Br J Cancer; 2012; 106(5): 1004-1010

PMID:22315049

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Background:Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (BPs) regulate cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, and may have a role in the aetiology of various cancers. Information on their role in pancreatic cancer is limited and was examined here in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.Methods:Serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in 422 cases and 422 controls matched on age, sex, study centre, recruitment date, and time since last meal. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for confounding variables.Results:Neither circulating levels of IGF-I (OR=1.21, 95% CI 0.75-1.93 for top vs bottom quartile, P-trend 0.301), IGFBP-3 (OR=1.00, 95% CI 0.66-1.51, P-trend 0.79), nor the molar IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio, an indicator of free IGF-I level (OR=1.22, 95% CI 0.75-1.97, P-trend 0.27), were statistically significantly associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer. In a cross-classification, however, a high concentration of IGF-I with concurrently low levels of IGFBP-3 was related to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (OR=1.72, 95% CI 1.05-2.83; P-interaction=0.154).Conclusion:On the basis of these results, circulating levels of components of the IGF axis do not appear to be the risk factors for pancreatic cancer. However, on the basis of the results of a subanalysis, it cannot be excluded that a relatively large amount of IGF-1 together with very low levels of IGFBP-3 might still be associated with an increase in pancreatic cancer risk

Is concordance with World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines for cancer prevention related to subsequent risk of cancer? Results from the EPIC study

Romaguera D., Vergnaud A.C., Peeters P.H., Van Gils C.H., Chan D.S., Ferrari P., Romieu I., Jenab M., Slimani N., Clavel-Chapelon F., Fagherazzi G., Perquier F., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Boeing H., von Rusten A., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Dahm C.C., Overvad K., Quiros J.R., Gonzalez C.A., Sanchez M.J., Navarro C., Barricarte A., Dorronsoro M., Khaw K.T., Wareham N.J., Crowe F.L., Key T.J., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Bamia C., Masala G., Vineis P., Tumino R., Sieri S., Panico S., May A.M., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Buchner F.L., Wirfalt E., Manjer J., Johansson I., Hallmans G., Skeie G., Benjaminsen Borch K., Parr C.L., Riboli E., Norat T.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2012; 96(1): 150-163

PMID:22592101

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute of Cancer Research (AICR) issued 8 recommendations (plus 2 special recommendations) on diet, physical activity, and weight management for cancer prevention on the basis of the most comprehensive collection of available evidence. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether concordance with the WCRF/AICR recommendations was related to cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. DESIGN: The present study included 386,355 EPIC participants from 9 European countries. At recruitment, dietary, anthropometric, and lifestyle information was collected. A score was constructed based on the WCRF/AICR recommendations on weight management, physical activity, foods and drinks that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks, and breastfeeding for women; the score range was 0-6 for men and 0-7 for women. Higher scores indicated greater concordance with WCRF/AICR recommendations. The association between the score and cancer risk was estimated by using multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS: Concordance with the score was significantly associated with decreased risk of cancer. A 1-point increment in the score was associated with a risk reduction of 5% (95% CI: 3%, 7%) for total cancer, 12% (95% CI: 9%, 16%) for colorectal cancer, and 16% (95% CI: 9%, 22%) for stomach cancer. Significant associations were also observed for cancers of the breast, endometrium, lung, kidney, upper aerodigestive tract, liver, and esophagus but not for prostate, ovarian, pancreatic, and bladder cancers. CONCLUSION: Adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention may lower the risk of developing most types of cancer

Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Romieu I., Ferrari P., Rinaldi S., Slimani N., Jenab M., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Overvad K., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Lajous M., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Naska A., Vasilopoulo E., Sacerdote C., Tumino R., Masala G., Sieri S., Panico S., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Van der A D., Van Gils C.H., Peeters P.H., Lund E., Skeie G., Asli L.A., Rodriguez L., Navarro C., Amiano P., Sanchez M.J., Barricarte A., Buckland G., Sonestedt E., Wirfalt E., Hallmans G., Johansson I., Key T.J., Allen N.E., Khaw K.T., Wareham N.J., Norat T., Riboli E., Clavel-Chapelon F.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2012; 96(2): 345-355

PMID:22760570

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: The glycemic potential of a diet is associated with chronically elevated insulin concentrations, which may augment breast cancer (BC) risk by stimulating insulin receptor or by affecting insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)-mediated mitogenesis. It is unclear whether this effect differs by BC phenotype. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the relation between glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and total carbohydrate intake with BC by using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). DESIGN: We identified 11,576 women with invasive BC among 334,849 EPIC women aged 34-66 y (5th to 95th percentiles) at baseline over a median follow-up of 11.5 y. Dietary GI and GL were calculated from country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to quantify the association between GI, GL, and carbohydrate intake and BC risk. BC tumors were classified by receptor status. RESULTS: Overall GI, GL, and carbohydrates were not related to BC. Among postmenopausal women, GL and carbohydate intake were significantly associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)) BC when extreme quintiles (Q) were compared [multivariable HR(Q5-Q1) (95% CI) = 1.36 (1.02, 1.82; P-trend = 0.010) and HR(Q5-Q1) = 1.41 (1.05, 1.89; P-trend = 0.009), respectively]. Further stratification by progesterone receptor (PR) status showed slightly stronger associations with ER(-)/PR(-) BC [HR(Q5-Q1) (95% CI) = 1.48 (1.07, 2.05; P-trend = 0.010) for GL and HR(Q5-Q1) = 1.62 (1.15, 2.30; P-trend = 0.005) for carbohydrates]. No significant association with ER-positive BC was observed. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that a diet with a high GL and carbohydrate intake is positively associated with an increased risk of developing ER(-) and ER(-)/PR(-) BC among postmenopausal women

Plasma carotenoids and vitamin C concentrations and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Ros M.M., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Kampman E., Aben K.K., Buchner F.L., Jansen E.H., Van Gils C.H., Egevad L., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Roswall N., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Kvaskoff M., Perquier F., Kaaks R., Chang-Claude J., Weikert S., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Dilis V., Palli D., Pala V., Sacerdote C., Tumino R., Panico S., Peeters P.H., Gram I.T., Skeie G., Huerta J.M., Barricarte A., Quiros J.R., Sanchez M.J., Buckland G., Larranaga N., Ehrnstrom R., Wallstrom P., Ljungberg B., Hallmans G., Key T.J., Allen N.E., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Brennan P., Riboli E., Kiemeney L.A.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2012; 96(4): 902-910

PMID:22952186

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Published associations between dietary carotenoids and vitamin C and bladder cancer risk are inconsistent. Biomarkers may provide more accurate measures of nutrient status. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between plasma carotenoids and vitamin C and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. DESIGN: A total of 856 patients with newly diagnosed UCC were matched with 856 cohort members by sex, age at baseline, study center, date and time of blood collection, and fasting status. Plasma carotenoids (alpha- and beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin) were measured by using reverse-phase HPLC, and plasma vitamin C was measured by using a colorimetric assay. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated by using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for smoking status, duration, and intensity. RESULTS: UCC risk decreased with higher concentrations of the sum of plasma carotenoids (IRR for the highest compared with the lowest quartile: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.93; P-trend = 0.04). Plasma beta-carotene was inversely associated with aggressive UCC (IRR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.88; P-trend = 0.02). Plasma lutein was inversely associated with risk of nonaggressive UCC (IRR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.98; P-trend = 0.05). No association was observed between plasma vitamin C and risk of UCC. CONCLUSIONS: Although residual confounding by smoking or other factors cannot be excluded, higher concentrations of plasma carotenoids may reduce risk of UCC, in particular aggressive UCC. Plasma lutein may reduce risk of nonaggressive UCC

Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of aggressive and non-aggressive urothelial cell carcinomas in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Ros M.M., Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita H., Kampman E., Buchner F.L., Aben K.K., Egevad L., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Roswall N., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Morois S., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Weikert S., Ruesten Av, Trichopoulou A., Naska A., Benetou V., Saieva C., Pala V., Ricceri F., Tumino R., Mattiello A., Peeters P.H., Van Gils C.H., Gram I.T., Engeset D., Chirlaque M.D., Ardanazx E., Rodriguez L., Amanio P., Gonzalez C.A., Sanchez M.J., Ulmert D., Ernstrom R., Ljungberg B., Allen N.E., Key T.J., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Slimani N., Romieu I., Kiemeney L.A., Riboli E.

Eur J Cancer; 2012; 48(17): 3267-3277

PMID:22863148

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Many epidemiological studies have examined fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to the risk of urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) of the bladder, but results are inconsistent. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and UCC risk may vary by bladder tumour aggressiveness. Therefore, we examined the relation between fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of aggressive and non-aggressive UCC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: After 8.9years of follow-up, 947UCC were diagnosed among 468,656 EPIC participants. Of these, 421 could be classified as aggressive UCC and 433 as non-aggressive UCC cases. At recruitment, fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed by validated dietary questionnaires. Multivariable hazard ratios were estimated using Cox regression stratified by age, sex and center and adjusted for smoking status, duration and intensity of smoking, and energy intake. RESULTS: Total consumption of fruits and vegetables was not associated with aggressive UCC nor with non-aggressive UCC. A 25g/day increase in leafy vegetables and grapes consumption was associated with a reduced risk of non-aggressive UCC (hazard ratio (HR) 0.88; 95%confidence interval (CI) 0.78-1.00 and HR 0.87; 95%CI 0.77-0.98, respectively), while the intake of root vegetables was inversely associated with risk of aggressive UCC (HR 0.87; 95%CI 0.77-0.98). CONCLUSION: Our study did not confirm a protective effect of total fruit and/or vegetable consumption on aggressive or non-aggressive UCC. High consumption of certain types of vegetables and of fruits may reduce the risk of aggressive or non-aggressive UCC; however chance findings cannot be excluded

Prostate stem-cell antigen gene is associated with diffuse and intestinal gastric cancer in Caucasians: results from the EPIC-EURGAST study

Sala N., Munoz X., Travier N., Agudo A., Duell E.J., Moreno V., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Canzian F., Kaaks R., Boeing H., Meidtner K., Trichopoulos A., Tsiotas K., Zylis D., Vineis P., Panico S., Palli D., Krogh V., Tumino R., Lund E., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Numans M.E., Peeters P.H., Quiros J.R., Sanchez M.J., Navarro C., Ardanaz E., Dorronsoro M., Hallmans G., Stenling R., Manjer J., Allen N.E., Travis R.C., Khaw K.T., Jenab M., Offerhaus G.J., Riboli E., Gonzalez C.A.

Int J Cancer; 2012; 130(10): 2417-2427

PMID:21681742

Abstract as provided by PubMed

A genome-wide study performed in a Japanese population identified a strong association between SNP rs2294008 (Met1Thr) in the Prostate Stem Cell Antigen gene (PSCA) and diffuse-type gastric cancer (GC). This association was validated in different Asian populations, and, very recently, a study has been published in Caucasians. In this study, we analyzed the association between PSCA variation and GC risk in Caucasians from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Six tagSNPs covering the PSCA gene region were genotyped in 411 incident gastric adenocarcinoma cases and 1530 matched controls from a nested case-control study in the EPIC cohort. Associations were analyzed by unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex and country. The T allele of rs2294008 in PSCA was found to be a highly significant risk factor for GC (per allele OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.23-1.66, p-value = 6.5 x 10(-6) ), particularly of the noncardia-type (per allele OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.19-1.81, p-value = 3 x 10(-4) ). At contrast with previous studies, no significant differences were observed between the diffuse (per allele OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.20-1.96, p-value = 5 x 10(-4) ) and the intestinal (per allele OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.20-1.93, p-value = 5 x 10(-4) ) GC histological subtypes. Although rs12155758 and rs9297976 were also found associated with GC, this association appeared to be due to linkage disequilibrium with rs2294008. Haplotype analysis did not provide additional information. These results confirm the association between variation in the promoter region of PSCA and GC risk in Caucasians and also indicate that the rs2294008 variant is a similar risk factor for both the diffuse and intestinal-types of GC

Dietary total antioxidant capacity and gastric cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

Serafini M., Jakszyn P., Lujan-Barroso L., Agudo A., Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita H., van Duijnhoven F.J., Jenab M., Navarro C., Palli D., Boeing H., Wallstrom P., Regner S., Numans M.E., Carneiro F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Morois S., Grioni S., Panico S., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Ramon Quiros J., Molina-Montes E., Huerta Castano J.M., Barricarte A., Amiano P., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Key T.J., Jeurnink S.M., Peeters P.H., Bamia C., Valanou E., Trichopoulou A., Kaaks R., Lukanova A., Bergmann M.M., Lindkvist B., Stenling R., Johansson I., Dahm C.C., Overvad K., Jensen M., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Lund E., Rinaldi S., Michaud D., Mouw T., Riboli E., Gonzalez C.A.

Int J Cancer; 2012; 131(4): E544-E554

PMID:22072493

Abstract as provided by PubMed

A high intake of dietary antioxidant compounds has been hypothesized to be an appropriate strategy to reduce gastric cancer (GC) development. We investigated the effect of dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in relation to GC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) study including 23 centers in 10 European countries. A total of 521,457 subjects (153,447 men) aged mostly 35-70 years old, were recruited largely between 1992 and 1998. Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), measuring reducing and chain-breaking antioxidant capacity were used to measure dietary TAC from plant foods. Dietary antioxidant intake is associated with a reduction in the risk of GC for both FRAP (adjusted HR 0.66; 95%CI (0.46-0.95) and TRAP (adjusted HR 0.61; 95%CI (0.43-0.87) (highest vs. lowest quintile). The association was observed for both cardia and noncardia cancers. A clear effect was observed in smokers with a significant reduction in GC risk for the fifth quintile of intake for both assays (highest vs. lowest quintile: adjusted HR 0.41; 95%CI (0.22-0.76) p for trend <0.001 for FRAP; adjusted HR 0.52; 95%CI (0.28-0.97) p for trend <0.001 for TRAP) but not in nonsmokers. In former smokers, the association with FRAP intake was statistically significant (highest vs. lowest quintile: adjusted HR 0.4; 95%CI (0.21-0.75) p < 0.05); no association was observed for TRAP. Dietary antioxidant capacity intake from different sources of plant foods is associated with a reduction in the risk of GC

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