You are here: Home

Search Result (484 REFERENCES)

2012

The association of education with long-term weight change in the EPIC-PANACEA cohort

Rohrmann S., Steinbrecher A., Linseisen J., Hermann S., May A., Luan J., Ekelund U., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Fagherazzi G., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Agnoli C., Tumino R., Masala G., Mattiello A., Ricceri F., Travier N., Amiano P., Ardanaz E., Chirlaque M.D., Sanchez M.J., Rodriguez L., Nilsson L.M., Johansson I., Hedblad B., Rosvall M., Lund E., Braaten T., Naska A., Orfanos P., Trichopoulou A., van den Berg S., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Bergmann M.M., Steffen A., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Wareham N.J., Khaw K.T., Crowe F.L., Illner A.K., Slimani N., Gallo V., Mouw T., Norat T., Peeters P.H.

Eur J Clin Nutr; 2012; 66(8): 957-963

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Background/objectives:Cross-sectionally, educational attainment is strongly associated with the prevalence of obesity, but this association is less clear for weight change during adult life. The objective of this study is to examine the association between educational attainment and weight change during adult life in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).Subjects/methods:EPIC is a cohort study with 361 467 participants and up to 10 years of follow-up. Educational attainment was categorized according to the highest obtained school level (primary school or less, vocational secondary training, other secondary education and university). Multivariate mixed-effects linear regression models were used to study education in relation to weight at age 20 years (self-reported), to annual change in weight between age 20 years and measured weight at recruitment, and to annual change in weight during follow-up time.Results:Higher educational attainment was associated with on average a lower body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years and a lower increase in weight up to recruitment (highest vs lowest educational attainment in men: -60 g per year (95% confidence interval (CI) -80; -40), women -110 g per year (95% CI -130; -80)). Although during follow-up after recruitment an increase in body weight was observed in all educational levels, gain was lowest in men and women with a university degree (high vs low education -120 g per year (95% CI -150; -90) and -70 g per year (95% CI -90; -60), respectively).Conclusions:Existing differences in BMI between higher and lower educated individuals at early adulthood became more pronounced during lifetime, which possibly impacts on obesity-related chronic disease risk in persons with lower educational attainment

Is concordance with World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines for cancer prevention related to subsequent risk of cancer? Results from the EPIC study

Romaguera D., Vergnaud A.C., Peeters P.H., Van Gils C.H., Chan D.S., Ferrari P., Romieu I., Jenab M., Slimani N., Clavel-Chapelon F., Fagherazzi G., Perquier F., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Boeing H., von Rusten A., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Dahm C.C., Overvad K., Quiros J.R., Gonzalez C.A., Sanchez M.J., Navarro C., Barricarte A., Dorronsoro M., Khaw K.T., Wareham N.J., Crowe F.L., Key T.J., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Bamia C., Masala G., Vineis P., Tumino R., Sieri S., Panico S., May A.M., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Buchner F.L., Wirfalt E., Manjer J., Johansson I., Hallmans G., Skeie G., Benjaminsen Borch K., Parr C.L., Riboli E., Norat T.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2012; 96(1): 150-163

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute of Cancer Research (AICR) issued 8 recommendations (plus 2 special recommendations) on diet, physical activity, and weight management for cancer prevention on the basis of the most comprehensive collection of available evidence. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether concordance with the WCRF/AICR recommendations was related to cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. DESIGN: The present study included 386,355 EPIC participants from 9 European countries. At recruitment, dietary, anthropometric, and lifestyle information was collected. A score was constructed based on the WCRF/AICR recommendations on weight management, physical activity, foods and drinks that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks, and breastfeeding for women; the score range was 0-6 for men and 0-7 for women. Higher scores indicated greater concordance with WCRF/AICR recommendations. The association between the score and cancer risk was estimated by using multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS: Concordance with the score was significantly associated with decreased risk of cancer. A 1-point increment in the score was associated with a risk reduction of 5% (95% CI: 3%, 7%) for total cancer, 12% (95% CI: 9%, 16%) for colorectal cancer, and 16% (95% CI: 9%, 22%) for stomach cancer. Significant associations were also observed for cancers of the breast, endometrium, lung, kidney, upper aerodigestive tract, liver, and esophagus but not for prostate, ovarian, pancreatic, and bladder cancers. CONCLUSION: Adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention may lower the risk of developing most types of cancer

Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Romieu I., Ferrari P., Rinaldi S., Slimani N., Jenab M., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Overvad K., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Lajous M., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Naska A., Vasilopoulo E., Sacerdote C., Tumino R., Masala G., Sieri S., Panico S., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Van der A D., Van Gils C.H., Peeters P.H., Lund E., Skeie G., Asli L.A., Rodriguez L., Navarro C., Amiano P., Sanchez M.J., Barricarte A., Buckland G., Sonestedt E., Wirfalt E., Hallmans G., Johansson I., Key T.J., Allen N.E., Khaw K.T., Wareham N.J., Norat T., Riboli E., Clavel-Chapelon F.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2012; 96(2): 345-355

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: The glycemic potential of a diet is associated with chronically elevated insulin concentrations, which may augment breast cancer (BC) risk by stimulating insulin receptor or by affecting insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)-mediated mitogenesis. It is unclear whether this effect differs by BC phenotype. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the relation between glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and total carbohydrate intake with BC by using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). DESIGN: We identified 11,576 women with invasive BC among 334,849 EPIC women aged 34-66 y (5th to 95th percentiles) at baseline over a median follow-up of 11.5 y. Dietary GI and GL were calculated from country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to quantify the association between GI, GL, and carbohydrate intake and BC risk. BC tumors were classified by receptor status. RESULTS: Overall GI, GL, and carbohydrates were not related to BC. Among postmenopausal women, GL and carbohydate intake were significantly associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)) BC when extreme quintiles (Q) were compared [multivariable HR(Q5-Q1) (95% CI) = 1.36 (1.02, 1.82; P-trend = 0.010) and HR(Q5-Q1) = 1.41 (1.05, 1.89; P-trend = 0.009), respectively]. Further stratification by progesterone receptor (PR) status showed slightly stronger associations with ER(-)/PR(-) BC [HR(Q5-Q1) (95% CI) = 1.48 (1.07, 2.05; P-trend = 0.010) for GL and HR(Q5-Q1) = 1.62 (1.15, 2.30; P-trend = 0.005) for carbohydrates]. No significant association with ER-positive BC was observed. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that a diet with a high GL and carbohydrate intake is positively associated with an increased risk of developing ER(-) and ER(-)/PR(-) BC among postmenopausal women

Plasma carotenoids and vitamin C concentrations and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Ros M.M., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Kampman E., Aben K.K., Buchner F.L., Jansen E.H., Van Gils C.H., Egevad L., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Roswall N., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Kvaskoff M., Perquier F., Kaaks R., Chang-Claude J., Weikert S., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Dilis V., Palli D., Pala V., Sacerdote C., Tumino R., Panico S., Peeters P.H., Gram I.T., Skeie G., Huerta J.M., Barricarte A., Quiros J.R., Sanchez M.J., Buckland G., Larranaga N., Ehrnstrom R., Wallstrom P., Ljungberg B., Hallmans G., Key T.J., Allen N.E., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Brennan P., Riboli E., Kiemeney L.A.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2012; 96(4): 902-910

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Published associations between dietary carotenoids and vitamin C and bladder cancer risk are inconsistent. Biomarkers may provide more accurate measures of nutrient status. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between plasma carotenoids and vitamin C and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. DESIGN: A total of 856 patients with newly diagnosed UCC were matched with 856 cohort members by sex, age at baseline, study center, date and time of blood collection, and fasting status. Plasma carotenoids (alpha- and beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein, and zeaxanthin) were measured by using reverse-phase HPLC, and plasma vitamin C was measured by using a colorimetric assay. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated by using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for smoking status, duration, and intensity. RESULTS: UCC risk decreased with higher concentrations of the sum of plasma carotenoids (IRR for the highest compared with the lowest quartile: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.93; P-trend = 0.04). Plasma beta-carotene was inversely associated with aggressive UCC (IRR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.88; P-trend = 0.02). Plasma lutein was inversely associated with risk of nonaggressive UCC (IRR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.98; P-trend = 0.05). No association was observed between plasma vitamin C and risk of UCC. CONCLUSIONS: Although residual confounding by smoking or other factors cannot be excluded, higher concentrations of plasma carotenoids may reduce risk of UCC, in particular aggressive UCC. Plasma lutein may reduce risk of nonaggressive UCC

Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of aggressive and non-aggressive urothelial cell carcinomas in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Ros M.M., Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita H., Kampman E., Buchner F.L., Aben K.K., Egevad L., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Roswall N., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Morois S., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Weikert S., Ruesten Av, Trichopoulou A., Naska A., Benetou V., Saieva C., Pala V., Ricceri F., Tumino R., Mattiello A., Peeters P.H., Van Gils C.H., Gram I.T., Engeset D., Chirlaque M.D., Ardanazx E., Rodriguez L., Amanio P., Gonzalez C.A., Sanchez M.J., Ulmert D., Ernstrom R., Ljungberg B., Allen N.E., Key T.J., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Slimani N., Romieu I., Kiemeney L.A., Riboli E.

Eur J Cancer; 2012; 48(17): 3267-3277

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Many epidemiological studies have examined fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to the risk of urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) of the bladder, but results are inconsistent. The association between fruit and vegetable consumption and UCC risk may vary by bladder tumour aggressiveness. Therefore, we examined the relation between fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of aggressive and non-aggressive UCC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: After 8.9years of follow-up, 947UCC were diagnosed among 468,656 EPIC participants. Of these, 421 could be classified as aggressive UCC and 433 as non-aggressive UCC cases. At recruitment, fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed by validated dietary questionnaires. Multivariable hazard ratios were estimated using Cox regression stratified by age, sex and center and adjusted for smoking status, duration and intensity of smoking, and energy intake. RESULTS: Total consumption of fruits and vegetables was not associated with aggressive UCC nor with non-aggressive UCC. A 25g/day increase in leafy vegetables and grapes consumption was associated with a reduced risk of non-aggressive UCC (hazard ratio (HR) 0.88; 95%confidence interval (CI) 0.78-1.00 and HR 0.87; 95%CI 0.77-0.98, respectively), while the intake of root vegetables was inversely associated with risk of aggressive UCC (HR 0.87; 95%CI 0.77-0.98). CONCLUSION: Our study did not confirm a protective effect of total fruit and/or vegetable consumption on aggressive or non-aggressive UCC. High consumption of certain types of vegetables and of fruits may reduce the risk of aggressive or non-aggressive UCC; however chance findings cannot be excluded

Prostate stem-cell antigen gene is associated with diffuse and intestinal gastric cancer in Caucasians: results from the EPIC-EURGAST study

Sala N., Munoz X., Travier N., Agudo A., Duell E.J., Moreno V., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Canzian F., Kaaks R., Boeing H., Meidtner K., Trichopoulos A., Tsiotas K., Zylis D., Vineis P., Panico S., Palli D., Krogh V., Tumino R., Lund E., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Numans M.E., Peeters P.H., Quiros J.R., Sanchez M.J., Navarro C., Ardanaz E., Dorronsoro M., Hallmans G., Stenling R., Manjer J., Allen N.E., Travis R.C., Khaw K.T., Jenab M., Offerhaus G.J., Riboli E., Gonzalez C.A.

Int J Cancer; 2012; 130(10): 2417-2427

Abstract as provided by PubMed

A genome-wide study performed in a Japanese population identified a strong association between SNP rs2294008 (Met1Thr) in the Prostate Stem Cell Antigen gene (PSCA) and diffuse-type gastric cancer (GC). This association was validated in different Asian populations, and, very recently, a study has been published in Caucasians. In this study, we analyzed the association between PSCA variation and GC risk in Caucasians from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Six tagSNPs covering the PSCA gene region were genotyped in 411 incident gastric adenocarcinoma cases and 1530 matched controls from a nested case-control study in the EPIC cohort. Associations were analyzed by unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex and country. The T allele of rs2294008 in PSCA was found to be a highly significant risk factor for GC (per allele OR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.23-1.66, p-value = 6.5 x 10(-6) ), particularly of the noncardia-type (per allele OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.19-1.81, p-value = 3 x 10(-4) ). At contrast with previous studies, no significant differences were observed between the diffuse (per allele OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.20-1.96, p-value = 5 x 10(-4) ) and the intestinal (per allele OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.20-1.93, p-value = 5 x 10(-4) ) GC histological subtypes. Although rs12155758 and rs9297976 were also found associated with GC, this association appeared to be due to linkage disequilibrium with rs2294008. Haplotype analysis did not provide additional information. These results confirm the association between variation in the promoter region of PSCA and GC risk in Caucasians and also indicate that the rs2294008 variant is a similar risk factor for both the diffuse and intestinal-types of GC

Dietary total antioxidant capacity and gastric cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

Serafini M., Jakszyn P., Lujan-Barroso L., Agudo A., Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita H., van Duijnhoven F.J., Jenab M., Navarro C., Palli D., Boeing H., Wallstrom P., Regner S., Numans M.E., Carneiro F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Morois S., Grioni S., Panico S., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Ramon Quiros J., Molina-Montes E., Huerta Castano J.M., Barricarte A., Amiano P., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Key T.J., Jeurnink S.M., Peeters P.H., Bamia C., Valanou E., Trichopoulou A., Kaaks R., Lukanova A., Bergmann M.M., Lindkvist B., Stenling R., Johansson I., Dahm C.C., Overvad K., Jensen M., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Lund E., Rinaldi S., Michaud D., Mouw T., Riboli E., Gonzalez C.A.

Int J Cancer; 2012; 131(4): E544-E554

Abstract as provided by PubMed

A high intake of dietary antioxidant compounds has been hypothesized to be an appropriate strategy to reduce gastric cancer (GC) development. We investigated the effect of dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in relation to GC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) study including 23 centers in 10 European countries. A total of 521,457 subjects (153,447 men) aged mostly 35-70 years old, were recruited largely between 1992 and 1998. Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), measuring reducing and chain-breaking antioxidant capacity were used to measure dietary TAC from plant foods. Dietary antioxidant intake is associated with a reduction in the risk of GC for both FRAP (adjusted HR 0.66; 95%CI (0.46-0.95) and TRAP (adjusted HR 0.61; 95%CI (0.43-0.87) (highest vs. lowest quintile). The association was observed for both cardia and noncardia cancers. A clear effect was observed in smokers with a significant reduction in GC risk for the fifth quintile of intake for both assays (highest vs. lowest quintile: adjusted HR 0.41; 95%CI (0.22-0.76) p for trend <0.001 for FRAP; adjusted HR 0.52; 95%CI (0.28-0.97) p for trend <0.001 for TRAP) but not in nonsmokers. In former smokers, the association with FRAP intake was statistically significant (highest vs. lowest quintile: adjusted HR 0.4; 95%CI (0.21-0.75) p < 0.05); no association was observed for TRAP. Dietary antioxidant capacity intake from different sources of plant foods is associated with a reduction in the risk of GC

The amount and type of dairy product intake and incident type 2 diabetes: results from the EPIC-InterAct Study

Sluijs I., Forouhi N.G., Beulens J.W., van der Schouw Y.T., Agnoli C., Arriola L., Balkau B., Barricarte A., Boeing H., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Clavel-Chapelon F., Crowe F.L., de Lauzon-Guillain B., Drogan D., Franks P.W., Gavrila D., Gonzalez C., Halkjaer J., Kaaks R., Moskal A., Nilsson P., Overvad K., Palli D., Panico S., Quiros J.R., Ricceri F., Rinaldi S., Rolandsson O., Sacerdote C., Sanchez M.J., Slimani N., Spijkerman A.M., Teucher B., Tjonneland A., Tormo M.J., Tumino R., van der A D.L., Sharp S.J., Langenberg C., Feskens E.J., Riboli E., Wareham N.J.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2012; 96(2): 382-390

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Dairy product intake may be inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is inconclusive for total dairy products and sparse for types of dairy products. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the prospective association of total dairy products and different dairy subtypes with incidence of diabetes in populations with marked variation of intake of these food groups. DESIGN: A nested case-cohort within 8 European countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (n = 340,234; 3.99 million person-years of follow-up) included a random subcohort (n = 16,835) and incident diabetes cases (n = 12,403). Baseline dairy product intake was assessed by using dietary questionnaires. Country-specific Prentice-weighted Cox regression HRs were calculated and pooled by using a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Intake of total dairy products was not associated with diabetes (HR for the comparison of the highest with the lowest quintile of total dairy products: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.34; P-trend = 0.92) in an analysis adjusted for age, sex, BMI, diabetes risk factors, education, and dietary factors. Of the dairy subtypes, cheese intake tended to have an inverse association with diabetes (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.02; P-trend = 0.01), and a higher combined intake of fermented dairy products (cheese, yogurt, and thick fermented milk) was inversely associated with diabetes (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.99; P-trend = 0.02) in adjusted analyses that compared extreme quintiles. CONCLUSIONS: This large prospective study found no association between total dairy product intake and diabetes risk. An inverse association of cheese intake and combined fermented dairy product intake with diabetes is suggested, which merits further study

Meat and heme iron intake and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aero-digestive tract in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Steffen A., Bergmann M.M., Sanchez M.J., Chirlaque M.D., Jakszyn P., Amiano P., Quiros J.R., Barricarte Gurrea A., Ferrari P., Romieu I., Fedirko V., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Siersema P.D., Peeters P.H., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Crowe F.L., Skeie G., Hallmanns G., Johansson I., Borgquist S., Ericson U., Egeberg R., Tjonneland A., Overvad K., Grote V., Li K., Trichopoulou A., Oikonomidou D., Pantzalis M., Tumino R., Panico S., Palli D., Krogh V., Naccarati A., Mouw T., Vergnaud A.C., Norat T., Boeing H.

Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev; 2012; 21(12): 2138-2148

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Evidence from prospective studies on intake of meat and fish and risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) is scarce. We prospectively investigated the association of meat and fish intake with risk of SCC of the UADT and the possible mechanism via heme iron in the large multicenter European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. METHODS: Multivariable proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) of SCC of the UADT in relation to intake of total meat, as well as subtypes of meat, fish, and heme iron among 348,738 individuals from 7 European countries. RESULTS: During an average follow-up of 11.8 years, a total of 682 incident cases of UADT SCC were accrued. Intake of processed meat was positively associated with risk of SCC of the UADT in the total cohort [highest vs. lowest quintile: RR = 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-1.94], however, in stratified analyses, this association was confined to the group of current smokers (highest vs. lowest quintile: RR = 1.89; 95% CI = 1.22-2.93). Red meat, poultry, fish, and heme iron were not consistently related to UADT SCC. CONCLUSION: Higher intake of processed meat was positively associated with SCC of the UADT among smokers. Although this finding was stable in various sensitivity analyses, we cannot rule out residual confounding by smoking. Confirmation in future studies and identification of biologic mechanisms is warranted. IMPACT: Smokers may further increase their risk for SCC of the UADT if they additionally consume large amounts of processed meat

Longitudinal changes in weight in relation to smoking cessation in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA study

Travier N., Agudo A., May A.M., Gonzalez C., Luan J., Wareham N.J., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., van den Berg S.W., Slimani N., Rinaldi S., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Palli D., Sieri S., Mattiello A., Tumino R., Vineis P., Norat T., Romaguera D., Rodriguez L., Sanchez M.J., Dorronsoro M., Barricarte A., Huerta J.M., Key T.J., Orfanos P., Naska A., Trichopoulou A., Rohrmann S., Kaaks R., Bergmann M.M., Boeing H., Hallmans G., Johansson I., Manjer J., Lindkvist B., Jakobsen M.U., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Lund E., Braaten T., Odysseos A., Riboli E., Peeters P.H.

Prev Med; 2012; 54(3): 183-192

Abstract as provided by PubMed

PURPOSE: We assessed the association between smoking cessation and prospective weight change in the European population of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of smoking, Eating out of home And obesity (EPIC-PANACEA) project. METHODS: The study involved more than 300,000 healthy volunteers, recruited between 1992 and 2000 in 9 European countries, who provided data on anthropometry and smoking habits at baseline and after a follow-up of 5years on average. Adjusted mixed-effects linear regression models were used to obtain sex-specific summary estimates of the association between the change in smoking status and the annual change in weight. RESULTS: Smoking cessation tends to be followed by weight gain; when compared to stable smokers, annual weight gain was higher in men (0.44kg (95%CI: 0.36; 0.52)) and women (0.46kg (95%CI: 0.41; 0.52)) who stopped smoking during follow-up. When smokers who stopped smoking at least 1year before recruitment were compared to never smokers, no major differences in annual weight gain were observed. The excess weight gain following smoking cessation appears to mainly occur in the first years following the cessation. CONCLUSIONS: When considering the benefits of smoking cessation, such findings strengthen the need for promoting cessation offering information on weight gain control and support to weight-concerned smokers in order to remove a barrier to quitting

Prediagnostic concentrations of plasma genistein and prostate cancer risk in 1,605 men with prostate cancer and 1,697 matched control participants in EPIC

Travis R.C., Allen N.E., Appleby P.N., Price A., Kaaks R., Chang-Claude J., Boeing H., Aleksandrova K., Tjonneland A., Johnsen N.F., Overvad K., Ramon Quiros J., Gonzalez C.A., Molina-Montes E., Sanchez M.J., Larranaga N., Castano J.M., Ardanaz E., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Trichopoulou A., Karapetyan T., Rafnsson S.B., Palli D., Krogh V., Tumino R., Vineis P., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Stattin P., Johansson M., Fedirko V., Norat T., Siddiq A., Riboli E., Key T.J.

Cancer Causes Control; 2012; 23(7): 1163-1171

Abstract as provided by PubMed

PURPOSE: Data from prospective epidemiological studies in Asian populations and from experimental studies in animals and cell lines suggest a possible protective association between dietary isoflavones and the development of prostate cancer. We examined the association between circulating concentrations of genistein and prostate cancer risk in a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. METHODS: Concentrations of the isoflavone genistein were measured in prediagnostic plasma samples for 1,605 prostate cancer cases and 1,697 matched control participants. Relative risks (RRs) for prostate cancer in relation to plasma concentrations of genistein were estimated by conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Plasma genistein concentrations were not associated with prostate cancer risk; the multivariate relative risk for men in the highest fifth of genistein compared with men in the lowest fifth was 1.00 (95 % confidence interval: 0.79, 1.27; p linear trend = 0.82). There was no evidence of heterogeneity in this association by age at blood collection, country of recruitment, or cancer stage or histological grade. CONCLUSION: Plasma genistein concentration was not associated with prostate cancer risk in this large cohort of European men

Fruit and vegetable consumption and prospective weight change in participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of Smoking, Eating Out of Home, and Obesity study

Vergnaud A.C., Norat T., Romaguera D., Mouw T., May A.M., Romieu I., Freisling H., Slimani N., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Morois S., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Boeing H., Buijsse B., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Overvad K., Jakobsen M.U., Rodriguez L., Agudo A., Sanchez M.J., Amiano P., Huerta J.M., Gurrea A.B., Wareham N., Khaw K.T., Crowe F., Orfanos P., Naska A., Trichopoulou A., Masala G., Pala V., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Mattiello A., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., van Duijnhoven F.J., Drake I., Wirfalt E., Johansson I., Hallmans G., Engeset D., Braaten T., Parr C.L., Odysseos A., Riboli E., Peeters P.H.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2012; 95(1): 184-193

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Fruit and vegetable consumption might prevent weight gain through their low energy density and high dietary fiber content. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the association between the baseline consumption of fruit and vegetables and weight change in participants from 10 European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. DESIGN: Diet was assessed at baseline in 373,803 participants by using country-specific validated questionnaires. Weight was measured at baseline and self-reported at follow-up in most centers. Associations between baseline fruit and vegetable intakes (per 100 g/d) and weight change (g/y) after a mean follow-up of 5 y were assessed by using linear mixed-models, with age, sex, total energy intake, and other potential confounders controlled for. RESULTS: After exclusion of subjects with chronic diseases at baseline and subjects who were likely to misreport energy intakes, baseline fruit and vegetable intakes were not associated with weight change overall. However, baseline fruit and vegetable intakes were inversely associated with weight change in men and women who quit smoking during follow-up. We observed weak positive associations between vegetable intake and weight change in women who were overweight, were former smokers, or had high prudent dietary pattern scores and weak inverse associations between fruit intake and weight change in women who were >50 y of age, were of normal weight, were never smokers, or had low prudent dietary pattern scores. CONCLUSIONS: In this large study, higher baseline fruit and vegetable intakes, while maintaining total energy intakes constant, did not substantially influence midterm weight change overall but could help to reduce risk of weight gain in persons who stop smoking. The interactions observed in women deserve additional attention

Dietary intakes and food sources of phytoestrogens in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) 24-hour dietary recall cohort

Zamora-Ros R., Knaze V., Lujan-Barroso L., Kuhnle G.G., Mulligan A.A., Touillaud M., Slimani N., Romieu I., Powell N., Tumino R., Peeters P.H., de Magistris M.S., Ricceri F., Sonestedt E., Drake I., Hjartaker A., Skie G., Mouw T., Wark P.A., Romaguera D., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Ros M., Molina E., Sieri S., Quiros J.R., Huerta J.M., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Masala G., Teucher B., Kaas R., Travis R.C., Dilis V., Benetou V., Trichopoulou A., Amiano P., Ardanaz E., Boeing H., Forster J., Clavel-Chapelon F., Fagherazzi G., Perquier F., Johansson G., Johansson I., Cassidy A., Overvad K., Gonzalez C.A.

Eur J Clin Nutr; 2012; 66(8): 932-941

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Phytoestrogens are estradiol-like natural compounds found in plants that have been associated with protective effects against chronic diseases, including some cancers, cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to estimate the dietary intake of phytoestrogens, identify their food sources and their association with lifestyle factors in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Single 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from 36 037 individuals from 10 European countries, aged 35-74 years using a standardized computerized interview programe (EPIC-Soft). An ad hoc food composition database on phytoestrogens (isoflavones, lignans, coumestans, enterolignans and equol) was compiled using data from available databases, in order to obtain and describe phytoestrogen intakes and their food sources across 27 redefined EPIC centres. RESULTS: Mean total phytoestrogen intake was the highest in the UK health-conscious group (24.9 mg/day in men and 21.1 mg/day in women) whereas lowest in Greece (1.3 mg/day) in men and Spain-Granada (1.0 mg/day) in women. Northern European countries had higher intakes than southern countries. The main phytoestrogen contributors were isoflavones in both UK centres and lignans in the other EPIC cohorts. Age, body mass index, educational level, smoking status and physical activity were related to increased intakes of lignans, enterolignans and equol, but not to total phytoestrogen, isoflavone or coumestan intakes. In the UK cohorts, the major food sources of phytoestrogens were soy products. In the other EPIC cohorts the dietary sources were more distributed, among fruits, vegetables, soy products, cereal products, non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high variability in the dietary intake of total and phytoestrogen subclasses and their food sources across European regions

Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and gastric adenocarcinoma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

Zamora-Ros R., Agudo A., Lujan-Barroso L., Romieu I., Ferrari P., Knaze V., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Leenders M., Travis R.C., Navarro C., Sanchez-Cantalejo E., Slimani N., Scalbert A., Fedirko V., Hjartaker A., Engeset D., Skeie G., Boeing H., Forster J., Li K., Teucher B., Agnoli C., Tumino R., Mattiello A., Saieva C., Johansson I., Stenling R., Redondo M.L., Wallstrom P., Ericson U., Khaw K.T., Mulligan A.A., Trichopoulou A., Dilis V., Katsoulis M., Peeters P.H., Igali L., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Touillaud M., Perquier F., Fagherazzi G., Amiano P., Ardanaz E., Bredsdorff L., Overvad K., Ricceri F., Riboli E., Gonzalez C.A.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2012; 96(6): 1398-1408

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Several experimental studies have suggested potential anticarcinogenic effects of flavonoids, although epidemiologic evidence for the impact of dietary flavonoids on risk of gastric cancer (GC) is limited. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between intake of dietary flavonoids and lignans and incident GC. DESIGN: The study followed 477,312 subjects (29.8% men) aged 35-70 y from 10 European countries who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Validated dietary questionnaires and lifestyle information were collected at baseline. A food-composition database on flavonoids and lignans was compiled by using data from USDA and Phenol-Explorer databases. RESULTS: During an average follow-up of 11 y, 683 incident GC cases (57.8% men) were mostly validated by a panel of pathologists and used in this analysis. We observed a significant inverse association between total flavonoid intake and GC risk in women (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.94; for the continuous variable after log(2) transformation) but not in men (HR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.09). In women, significant inverse associations with GC risk were also observed for intakes of some flavonoid subgroups (anthocyanidins, flavonols, flavones, and flavanols), particularly with intestinal type tumors for total flavonoid and flavanol intakes (P-heterogeneity < 0.1). After stratification by smoking status and sex, there was no significant heterogeneity in these associations between ever- and never-smokers. CONCLUSION: Total dietary flavonoid intake is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of GC in women

Association between flavonoid and lignan intakes and risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in the european prospective investigation into cancer and nutritio

Zamora-Ros R., Lujan-Barroso L., Romieu I., Slimani N., Scalbert A., Gonzalez C.

8th international conference on diet and activity methods methodological challenges for measuring the achievements of international policies. Rome 14-17 May 2012; 2012; 274

2011

Metabolic syndrome and risks of colon and rectal cancer: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study

Aleksandrova K., Boeing H., Jenab M., Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita H., Jansen E., van Duijnhoven F.J., Fedirko V., Rinaldi S., Romieu I., Riboli E., Romaguera D., Overvad K., Ostergaard J.N., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Morois S., Masala G., Agnoli C., Panico S., Tumino R., Vineis P., Kaaks R., Lukanova A., Trichopoulou A., Naska A., Bamia C., Peeters P.H., Rodriguez L., Buckland G., Sanchez M.J., Dorronsoro M., Huerta J.M., Barricarte A., Hallmans G., Palmqvist R., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Tsilidis K.K., Pischon T.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila); 2011; 4(11): 1873-1883

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is purportedly related to risk of developing colorectal cancer; however, the association of MetS, as defined according to recent international criteria, and colorectal cancer has not been yet evaluated. In particular, it remains unclear to what extent the MetS components individually account for such an association. We addressed these issues in a nested case-control study that included 1,093 incident cases matched (1:1) to controls by using incidence density sampling. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% CIs. MetS was defined according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATPIII), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and the 2009 harmonized definition. Among individual components, abdominal obesity (RR = 1.51; 95% CI: 1.16-1.96) was associated with colon cancer, whereas abnormal glucose metabolism was associated with both colon (RR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.57-2.68) and rectal cancer (RR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.45-2.96). MetS, as defined by each of the definitions, was similarly associated with colon cancer (e.g., RR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.47-2.42 for MetS by NCEP/ATPIII), whereas MetS by NCEP/ATPIII, but not IDF or harmonized definition, was associated with rectal cancer (RR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.02-2.06). Overall, these associations were stronger in women than in men. However, the association between MetS and colorectal cancer was accounted for by abdominal obesity and abnormal glucose metabolism such that MetS did not provide risk information beyond these components (likelihood ratio test P = 0.10 for MetS by NCEP/ATPIII). These data suggest that simple assessment of abnormal glucose metabolism and/or abdominal obesity to identify individuals at colorectal cancer risk may have higher clinical utility than applying more complex MetS definitions. Cancer Prev Res; 4(11); 1873-83. (c)2011 AACR

Menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer risk: impact of different treatments. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Bakken K., Fournier A., Lund E., Waaseth M., Dumeaux V., Clavel-Chapelon F., Fabre A., Hemon B., Rinaldi S., Chajes V., Slimani N., Allen N.E., Reeves G.K., Bingham S., Khaw K.T., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Rodriguez L., Sanchez M.J., Etxezarreta P.A., Ardanaz E., Tormo M.J., Peeters P.H., Van Gils C.H., Steffen A., Schulz M., Chang-Claude J., Kaaks R., Tumino R., Gallo V., Norat T., Riboli E., Panico S., Masala G., Gonzalez C.A., Berrino F.

Int J Cancer; 2011; 128(1): 144-156

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is characterized by use of different constituents, regimens and routes of administration. We investigated the association between the use of different types of MHT and breast cancer risk in the EPIC cohort study. The analysis is based on data from 133,744 postmenopausal women. Approximately 133,744 postmenopausal women contributed to this analysis. Information on MHT was derived from country-specific self-administered questionnaires with a single baseline assessment. Incident breast cancers were identified through population cancer registries or by active follow-up (mean: 8.6 yr). Overall relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were derived from country-specific Cox proportional hazard models estimates. A total of 4312 primary breast cancers were diagnosed during 1,153,747 person-years of follow-up. Compared with MHT never users, breast cancer risk was higher among current users of estrogen only (RR: 1.42, 95% CI 1.23-1.64) and higher still among current users of combined MHT (RR: 1.77, 95% CI 1.40-2.24; p = 0.02 for combined vs. estrogen-only). Continuous combined regimens conferred a 43% (95% CI: 19-72%) greater risk compared with sequential regimens. There was no significant difference between progesterone and testosterone derivatives in sequential regimens. There was no significant variation in risk linked to the estrogenic component of MHT, neither for oral vs. cutaneous administration nor for estradiol compounds vs. conjugated equine estrogens. Estrogen-only and combined MHT uses were associated with increased breast cancer risk. Continuous combined preparations were associated with the highest risk. Further studies are needed to disentangle the effects of the regimen and the progestin component

Aberrant DNA methylation of cancer-associated genes in gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST)

Balassiano K., Lima S., Jenab M., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Canzian F., Kaaks R., Boeing H., Meidtner K., Trichopoulou A., Laglou P., Vineis P., Panico S., Palli D., Grioni S., Tumino R., Lund E., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Numans M.E., Peeters P.H., Ramon Quiros J., Sanchez M.A., Navarro C., Ardanaz E., Dorronsoro M., Hallmans G., Stenling R., Ehrnstrom R., Regner S., Allen N.E., Travis R.C., Khaw K.T., Offerhaus G.J., Sala N., Riboli E., Hainaut P., Scoazec J.Y., Sylla B.S., Gonzalez C.A., Herceg Z.

Cancer Lett; 2011; 311(1): 85-95

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Epigenetic events have emerged as key mechanisms in the regulation of critical biological processes and in the development of a wide variety of human malignancies, including gastric cancer (GC), however precise gene targets of aberrant DNA methylation in GC remain largely unknown. Here, we have combined pyrosequencing-based quantitative analysis of DNA methylation in 98 GC cases and 64 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort and in cancer tissue and non-tumorigenic adjacent tissue of an independent series of GC samples. A panel of 10 cancer-associated genes (CHRNA3, DOK1, MGMT, RASSF1A, p14ARF, CDH1, MLH1, ALDH2, GNMT and MTHFR) and LINE-1 repetitive elements were included in the analysis and their association with clinicopathological characteristics (sex, age at diagnosis, anatomical sub-site, histological sub-type) was examined. Three out of the 10 genes analyzed exhibited a marked hypermethylation, whereas two genes (ALDH2 and MTHFR) showed significant hypomethylation, in gastric tumors. Among differentially methylated genes, we identified new genes (CHRNA3 and DOK1) as targets of aberrant hypermethylation in GC, suggesting that epigenetic deregulation of these genes and their corresponding cellular pathways may promote the development and progression of GC. We also found that global demethylation of tumor cell genomes occurs in GC, consistent with the notion that abnormal hypermethylation of specific genes occurs concomitantly with genome-wide hypomethylation. Age and gender had no significant influence on methylation states, but an association was observed between LINE-1 and MLH1 methylation levels with histological sub-type and anatomical sub-site. This study identifies aberrant methylation patters in specific genes in GC thus providing information that could be exploited as novel biomarkers in clinics and molecular epidemiology of GC

Smoking, Secondhand Smoke, and Cotinine Levels in a Subset of EPIC Cohort

Baltar V.T., Xun W.W., Chuang S.C., Relton C., Ueland P.M., Vollset S.E., Midttun O., Johansson M., Slimani N., Jenab M., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Fagherazzi G., Kaaks R., Rohrmann S., Boeing H., Weikert C., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Boshuizen H.C., Van Gils C.H., Peeters P.H., Agudo A., Barricarte A., Navarro C., Rodriguez L., Castano J.M., Larranaga N., Perez M.J., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Crowe F., Gallo V., Norat T., Tagliabue G., Masala G., Panico S., Sacerdote C., Tumino R., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Bamia C., Rasmuson T., Hallmans G., Roswall N., Tjonneland A., Riboli E., Brennan P., Vineis P.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2011; 20(5): 869-875

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Several countries are discussing new legislation regarding the ban on smoking in public places, based on the growing evidence of the hazards of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. The objective of the present study is to quantitatively assess the relationship between smoking, SHS, and serum cotinine levels in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: From a study on lung cancer in the EPIC cohort, questionnaire information on smoking was collected at enrolment, and cotinine was measured in serum. Three statistical models were applied by using samples available in a cross-section design: (i) cotinine levels by categories combining smoking and SHS (n = 859); (ii) the effect of hours of passive smoking exposure in nonsmokers only (n = 107); (iii) the effect of the number of cigarettes consumed per day in current smokers only (n = 832). All models were adjusted for country, sex, age, and body mass index. RESULTS: Among nonsmokers, passive smokers presented significant differences in cotinine compared with nonexposed, with a marked (but not significant) difference among former-smokers. A one hour per day increment of SHS gave rise to a significant 2.58 nmol/L (0.45 ng/mL) increase in mean serum cotinine (P < 0.001). In current smokers, a one cigarette per day increment gave rise to a significant 22.44 nmol/L (3.95 ng/mL) increase in cotinine mean (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: There is clear evidence that not only tobacco smoking but also involuntary exposure increases cotinine levels. Impact: This study strengthens the evidence for the benefits of a smoking ban in public places. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 20(5); 869-75. (c)2011 AACR

Diet and hip fractures among elderly Europeans in the EPIC cohort

Benetou V., Orfanos P., Zylis D., Sieri S., Contiero P., Tumino R., Giurdanella M.C., Peeters P.H., Linseisen J., Nieters A., Boeing H., Weikert C., Pettersson U., Johansson I., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Dorronsoro M., Boffetta P., Trichopoulou A.

Eur J Clin Nutr; 2011; 65(1): 132-139

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence on the role of diet during adulthood and beyond on fracture occurrence is limited. We investigated diet and hip fracture incidence in a population of elderly Europeans, participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition study. SUBJECTS/METHODS: 29, 122 volunteers (10,538 men, 18,584 women) aged 60 years and above (mean age: 64.3) from five countries were followed up for a median of 8 years and 275 incident hip fractures (222 women and 53 men) were recorded. Diet was assessed at baseline through validated dietary questionnaires. Data were analyzed through Cox proportional-hazards regression with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: No food group or nutrient was significantly associated with hip fracture occurrence. There were suggestive inverse associations, however, with vegetable consumption (hazard ratio (HR) per increasing sex-specific quintile: 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85-1.01), fish consumption (HR per increasing sex-specific quintile: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.85-1.02) and polyunsaturated lipid intake (HR per increasing sex-specific quintile: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.82-1.02), whereas saturated lipid intake was positively associated with hip fracture risk (HR per increasing sex-specific quintile: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.99-1.29). Consumption of dairy products did not appear to influence the risk (HR per increasing sex-specific quintile: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.93-1.12). CONCLUSIONS: In a prospective study of the elderly, diet, including consumption of dairy products, alcohol and vitamin D, did not appear to play a major role in hip fracture incidence. There is however, weak and statistically non-significant evidence that vegetable and fish consumption and intake of polyunsaturated lipids may have a beneficial, whereas saturated lipid intake a detrimental effect

Anthropometry, physical activity and hip fractures in the elderly

Benetou V., Orfanos P., Benetos I.S., Pala V., Evangelista A., Frasca G., Giurdanella M.C., Peeters P.H., van der Schouw I, Rohrmann S., Linseisen J., Boeing H., Weikert C., Pettersson U., Van Guelpen B., Bueno de Mesquita H.B., Altzibar J., Boffetta P., Trichopoulou A.

Injury; 2011; 42(2): 188-193

Abstract as provided by PubMed

INTRODUCTION: Hip fractures constitute a major and growing public health problem amongst the elderly worldwide. We examined the association of anthropometry and physical activity with hip fracture incidence in a cohort of elderly Europeans, participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 27 982 volunteers (10 553 men and 17 429 women) aged 60 years and above from five European countries. Information on anthropometry, physical activity, medical history and other characteristics was collected at baseline. During a median follow-up of 8 years, 261 incident hip fractures (203 women and 58 men) were recorded. Data were analysed through Cox proportional hazard regression with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: A higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with lower hip fracture risk (hazard ratio (HR)per increasing sex-specific-quintile: 0.85, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.77-0.94). Body height was associated with increased hip fracture risk (HR per 5 cm: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.01-1.25). Waist-to-hip ratio was not related to hip fracture risk. Increasing levels of leisure-time physical activity were related to lower risk (HR per increasing tertile: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.70-0.99, p for trend: 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: In a prospective cohort study of elderly Europeans, we found evidence that high body stature increased and high BMI decreased the incidence of hip fractures. After adjustment for BMI,waist to-hip ratio was not associated with hip fracture risk. Leisure-time physical activity appears to play a beneficial role in the prevention of hip fractures

The association of lifetime alcohol use with measures of abdominal and general adiposity in a large-scale European cohort

Bergmann M.M., Schutze M., Steffen A., Boeing H., Halkjaer J., Tjonneland A., Travier N., Agudo A., Slimani N., Rinaldi S., Norat T., Romaguera D., Rohrmann S., Kaaks R., Jakobsen M.U., Overvad K., Ekelund U., Spencer E.A., Rodriguez L., Sanchez M.J., Dorronsoro M., Barricarte A., Chirlaque M.D., Orfanos P., Naska A., Trichopoulou A., Palli D., Grioni S., Vineis P., Panico S., Tumino R., Riboli E., Wareham N.J., Bueno-de-Mesquita B., May A., Peeters P.H.

Eur J Clin Nutr; 2011; 65(10): 1079-1087

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Background/Objectives:The relation between lifetime use of alcohol and measures of abdominal and general adiposity is unknown.Subjects/Methods:Among 99 381 men and 158 796 women of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, means of waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI), and odds ratios (OR) for a larger WC than predicted for a given BMI (WClp=positive residuals of gender specific linear regression of BMI on WC) across categories of average lifetime use of alcohol (total, from wine and from beer) were calculated, all adjusted for socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors.Results:WC, WHR and BMI in men using lifetime </=6 g/d alcohol were 95.1 cm, 0.942 and 27.3 kg/m(2), and 96.2 cm, 0.961 and 28.3 kg/m(2) when using >96 g/d. WC and WHR in women was 83.2 cm and 0.813 for </=6 g/d, and 84.6 cm and 0.830 for >60 g/d, whereas BMI deviated only slightly with the lowest BMI (26.7 kg/m(2)) observed for >6-24 g/d. Compared with </=6 g/d, OR for a WClp in both genders increased steadily across categories of alcohol use (up to 1.40 (95% confidence interval 1.32, 1.49) in men using >60 g/d and 1.63 (1.54, 1.73) in women using >24 g/d), though increase was higher for alcohol from beer than from wine (P for difference between beer and wine<0.001 (men) and=0.002 (women)).Conclusion:Lifetime alcohol use is positively related to abdominal and general adiposity in men, possibly following the male weight gain pattern; in women, it is positively related only to abdominal adiposity. In this context, beer may contribute additionally to abdominal adiposity

Variety in vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of bladder cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Buchner F.L., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Ros M.M., Kampman E., Egevad L., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Roswall N., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Touillaud M., Kaaks R., Chang-Claude J., Boeing H., Weikert S., Trichopoulou A., Naska A., Benetou V., Palli D., Sieri S., Vineis P., Tumino R., Panico S., van Duijnhoven F.J., Peeters P.H., Van Gils C.H., Lund E., Gram I.T., Sanchez M.J., Jakszyn P., Larranaga N., Ardanaz E., Navarro C., Rodriguez L., Manjer J., Ehrnstrom R., Hallmans G., Ljungberg B., Key T.J., Allen N.E., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Slimani N., Jenab M., Boffetta P., Kiemeney L.A., Riboli E.

Int J Cancer; 2011; 128(12): 2971-2979

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Recent research does not show an association between fruit and vegetable consumption and bladder cancer risk. None of these studies investigated variety in fruit and vegetable consumption, which may capture different aspects of consumption. We investigated whether a varied consumption of vegetables and fruits is associated with bladder cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Detailed data on food consumption and complete follow-up for cancer incidence were available for 452,185 participants, who were recruited from ten European countries. After a mean follow-up of 8.7 years, 874 participants were diagnosed with bladder cancer. Diet diversity scores (DDSs) were used to quantify the variety in fruit and vegetable consumption. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the effect of the DDSs on bladder cancer risk. There was no evidence of a statistically significant association between bladder cancer risk and any of the DDSs when these scores were considered as continuous covariates. However, the hazard ratio (HR) for the highest tertile of the DDS for combined fruit and vegetable consumption was marginally significant compared to the lowest (HR = 1.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.69, p-trend = 0.05). In EPIC, there is no clear association between a varied fruit and vegetable consumption and bladder cancer risk. This finding provides further evidence for the absence of any strong association between fruit and vegetable consumption as measured by a food frequency questionnaire and bladder cancer risk

Genetic Variability of the mTOR Pathway and Prostate Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC)

Campa D., Husing A., Stein A., Dostal L., Boeing H., Pischon T., Tjonneland A., Roswall N., Overvad K., Ostergaard J.N., Rodriguez L., Sala N., Sanchez M.J., Larranaga N., Huerta J.M., Barricarte A., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Travis R.C., Allen N.E., Lagiou P., Trichopoulou A., Trichopoulos D., Palli D., Sieri S., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., van Kranen H., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Hallmans G., Johansson M., Romieu I., Jenab M., Cox D.G., Siddiq A., Riboli E., Canzian F., Kaaks R.

PLoS ONE; 2011; 6(2): e16914

Abstract as provided by PubMed

The mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signal transduction pathway integrates various signals, regulating ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis as a function of available energy and amino acids, and assuring an appropriate coupling of cellular proliferation with increases in cell size. In addition, recent evidence has pointed to an interplay between the mTOR and p53 pathways. We investigated the genetic variability of 67 key genes in the mTOR pathway and in genes of the p53 pathway which interact with mTOR. We tested the association of 1,084 tagging SNPs with prostate cancer risk in a study of 815 prostate cancer cases and 1,266 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We chose the SNPs (n = 11) with the strongest association with risk (p<0.01) and sought to replicate their association in an additional series of 838 prostate cancer cases and 943 controls from EPIC. In the joint analysis of first and second phase two SNPs of the PRKCI gene showed an association with risk of prostate cancer (OR(allele) = 0.85, 95% CI 0.78-0.94, p = 1.3x10(-3) for rs546950 and OR(allele) = 0.84, 95% CI 0.76-0.93, p = 5.6x10(-4) for rs4955720). We confirmed this in a meta-analysis using as replication set the data from the second phase of our study jointly with the first phase of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) project. In conclusion, we found an association with prostate cancer risk for two SNPs belonging to PRKCI, a gene which is frequently overexpressed in various neoplasms, including prostate cancer

Variation in genes coding for AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC)

Campa D., Claus R., Dostal L., Stein A., Chang-Claude J., Meidtner K., Boeing H., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Overvad K., Rodriguez L., Bonet C., Sanchez M.J., Amiano P., Huerta J.M., Barricarte A., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Travis R.C., Allen N.E., Trichopoulou A., Bamia C., Benetou V., Palli D., Agnoli C., Panico S., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., van Kranen H., Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita H., Peeters P.H., Van Gils C.H., Lenner P., Sund M., Lund E., Gram I.T., Rinaldi S., Chajes V., Romieu I., Engel P., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Siddiq A., Riboli E., Canzian F., Kaaks R.

Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2011; 127(3): 761-767

Abstract as provided by PubMed

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensing/signalling intracellular protein which is activated by an increase in the cellular AMP:ATP ratio after ATP depletion. Once activated, AMPK inhibits fatty acid synthesis and the Akt-mTOR pathway, and activates the p53-p21 axis. All these molecular mechanisms are thought to play a key role in breast carcinogenesis. We investigated the genetic variability of four genes encoding AMPK (PRKAA1, PRKAA2, PRKAB1 and PRKAB2). Using a tagging approach and selecting SNPs we covered all the common genetic variation of these genes. We tested association of tagging SNPs in our four candidate genes with breast cancer (BC) risk in a study of 1340 BC cases and 2536 controls nested into the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Given the relevance of AMPK on fatty acid synthesis and the importance of body fatness as a BC risk factor, we tested association of SNPs and body-mass index as well. We observed no statistically significant association between the SNPs in the PRKAs genes and BC risk and BMI after correction for multiple testing

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20