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2012

Dietary total antioxidant capacity and gastric cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

Serafini M., Jakszyn P., Lujan-Barroso L., Agudo A., Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita H., van Duijnhoven F.J., Jenab M., Navarro C., Palli D., Boeing H., Wallstrom P., Regner S., Numans M.E., Carneiro F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Morois S., Grioni S., Panico S., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Ramon Quiros J., Molina-Montes E., Huerta Castano J.M., Barricarte A., Amiano P., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Key T.J., Jeurnink S.M., Peeters P.H., Bamia C., Valanou E., Trichopoulou A., Kaaks R., Lukanova A., Bergmann M.M., Lindkvist B., Stenling R., Johansson I., Dahm C.C., Overvad K., Jensen M., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Lund E., Rinaldi S., Michaud D., Mouw T., Riboli E., Gonzalez C.A.

Int J Cancer; 2012; 131(4): E544-E554

PMID:22072493

Abstract as provided by PubMed

A high intake of dietary antioxidant compounds has been hypothesized to be an appropriate strategy to reduce gastric cancer (GC) development. We investigated the effect of dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in relation to GC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) study including 23 centers in 10 European countries. A total of 521,457 subjects (153,447 men) aged mostly 35-70 years old, were recruited largely between 1992 and 1998. Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), measuring reducing and chain-breaking antioxidant capacity were used to measure dietary TAC from plant foods. Dietary antioxidant intake is associated with a reduction in the risk of GC for both FRAP (adjusted HR 0.66; 95%CI (0.46-0.95) and TRAP (adjusted HR 0.61; 95%CI (0.43-0.87) (highest vs. lowest quintile). The association was observed for both cardia and noncardia cancers. A clear effect was observed in smokers with a significant reduction in GC risk for the fifth quintile of intake for both assays (highest vs. lowest quintile: adjusted HR 0.41; 95%CI (0.22-0.76) p for trend <0.001 for FRAP; adjusted HR 0.52; 95%CI (0.28-0.97) p for trend <0.001 for TRAP) but not in nonsmokers. In former smokers, the association with FRAP intake was statistically significant (highest vs. lowest quintile: adjusted HR 0.4; 95%CI (0.21-0.75) p < 0.05); no association was observed for TRAP. Dietary antioxidant capacity intake from different sources of plant foods is associated with a reduction in the risk of GC

The amount and type of dairy product intake and incident type 2 diabetes: results from the EPIC-InterAct Study

Sluijs I., Forouhi N.G., Beulens J.W., van der Schouw Y.T., Agnoli C., Arriola L., Balkau B., Barricarte A., Boeing H., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Clavel-Chapelon F., Crowe F.L., de Lauzon-Guillain B., Drogan D., Franks P.W., Gavrila D., Gonzalez C., Halkjaer J., Kaaks R., Moskal A., Nilsson P., Overvad K., Palli D., Panico S., Quiros J.R., Ricceri F., Rinaldi S., Rolandsson O., Sacerdote C., Sanchez M.J., Slimani N., Spijkerman A.M., Teucher B., Tjonneland A., Tormo M.J., Tumino R., van der A D.L., Sharp S.J., Langenberg C., Feskens E.J., Riboli E., Wareham N.J.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2012; 96(2): 382-390

PMID:22760573

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Dairy product intake may be inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is inconclusive for total dairy products and sparse for types of dairy products. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the prospective association of total dairy products and different dairy subtypes with incidence of diabetes in populations with marked variation of intake of these food groups. DESIGN: A nested case-cohort within 8 European countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (n = 340,234; 3.99 million person-years of follow-up) included a random subcohort (n = 16,835) and incident diabetes cases (n = 12,403). Baseline dairy product intake was assessed by using dietary questionnaires. Country-specific Prentice-weighted Cox regression HRs were calculated and pooled by using a random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Intake of total dairy products was not associated with diabetes (HR for the comparison of the highest with the lowest quintile of total dairy products: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.34; P-trend = 0.92) in an analysis adjusted for age, sex, BMI, diabetes risk factors, education, and dietary factors. Of the dairy subtypes, cheese intake tended to have an inverse association with diabetes (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.02; P-trend = 0.01), and a higher combined intake of fermented dairy products (cheese, yogurt, and thick fermented milk) was inversely associated with diabetes (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.99; P-trend = 0.02) in adjusted analyses that compared extreme quintiles. CONCLUSIONS: This large prospective study found no association between total dairy product intake and diabetes risk. An inverse association of cheese intake and combined fermented dairy product intake with diabetes is suggested, which merits further study

Meat and heme iron intake and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aero-digestive tract in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Steffen A., Bergmann M.M., Sanchez M.J., Chirlaque M.D., Jakszyn P., Amiano P., Quiros J.R., Barricarte Gurrea A., Ferrari P., Romieu I., Fedirko V., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Siersema P.D., Peeters P.H., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Crowe F.L., Skeie G., Hallmanns G., Johansson I., Borgquist S., Ericson U., Egeberg R., Tjonneland A., Overvad K., Grote V., Li K., Trichopoulou A., Oikonomidou D., Pantzalis M., Tumino R., Panico S., Palli D., Krogh V., Naccarati A., Mouw T., Vergnaud A.C., Norat T., Boeing H.

Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev; 2012; 21(12): 2138-2148

PMID:23033453

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Evidence from prospective studies on intake of meat and fish and risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) is scarce. We prospectively investigated the association of meat and fish intake with risk of SCC of the UADT and the possible mechanism via heme iron in the large multicenter European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. METHODS: Multivariable proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) of SCC of the UADT in relation to intake of total meat, as well as subtypes of meat, fish, and heme iron among 348,738 individuals from 7 European countries. RESULTS: During an average follow-up of 11.8 years, a total of 682 incident cases of UADT SCC were accrued. Intake of processed meat was positively associated with risk of SCC of the UADT in the total cohort [highest vs. lowest quintile: RR = 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-1.94], however, in stratified analyses, this association was confined to the group of current smokers (highest vs. lowest quintile: RR = 1.89; 95% CI = 1.22-2.93). Red meat, poultry, fish, and heme iron were not consistently related to UADT SCC. CONCLUSION: Higher intake of processed meat was positively associated with SCC of the UADT among smokers. Although this finding was stable in various sensitivity analyses, we cannot rule out residual confounding by smoking. Confirmation in future studies and identification of biologic mechanisms is warranted. IMPACT: Smokers may further increase their risk for SCC of the UADT if they additionally consume large amounts of processed meat

Longitudinal changes in weight in relation to smoking cessation in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA study

Travier N., Agudo A., May A.M., Gonzalez C., Luan J., Wareham N.J., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., van den Berg S.W., Slimani N., Rinaldi S., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Palli D., Sieri S., Mattiello A., Tumino R., Vineis P., Norat T., Romaguera D., Rodriguez L., Sanchez M.J., Dorronsoro M., Barricarte A., Huerta J.M., Key T.J., Orfanos P., Naska A., Trichopoulou A., Rohrmann S., Kaaks R., Bergmann M.M., Boeing H., Hallmans G., Johansson I., Manjer J., Lindkvist B., Jakobsen M.U., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Lund E., Braaten T., Odysseos A., Riboli E., Peeters P.H.

Prev Med; 2012; 54(3): 183-192

PMID:21939684

Abstract as provided by PubMed

PURPOSE: We assessed the association between smoking cessation and prospective weight change in the European population of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of smoking, Eating out of home And obesity (EPIC-PANACEA) project. METHODS: The study involved more than 300,000 healthy volunteers, recruited between 1992 and 2000 in 9 European countries, who provided data on anthropometry and smoking habits at baseline and after a follow-up of 5years on average. Adjusted mixed-effects linear regression models were used to obtain sex-specific summary estimates of the association between the change in smoking status and the annual change in weight. RESULTS: Smoking cessation tends to be followed by weight gain; when compared to stable smokers, annual weight gain was higher in men (0.44kg (95%CI: 0.36; 0.52)) and women (0.46kg (95%CI: 0.41; 0.52)) who stopped smoking during follow-up. When smokers who stopped smoking at least 1year before recruitment were compared to never smokers, no major differences in annual weight gain were observed. The excess weight gain following smoking cessation appears to mainly occur in the first years following the cessation. CONCLUSIONS: When considering the benefits of smoking cessation, such findings strengthen the need for promoting cessation offering information on weight gain control and support to weight-concerned smokers in order to remove a barrier to quitting

Prediagnostic concentrations of plasma genistein and prostate cancer risk in 1,605 men with prostate cancer and 1,697 matched control participants in EPIC

Travis R.C., Allen N.E., Appleby P.N., Price A., Kaaks R., Chang-Claude J., Boeing H., Aleksandrova K., Tjonneland A., Johnsen N.F., Overvad K., Ramon Quiros J., Gonzalez C.A., Molina-Montes E., Sanchez M.J., Larranaga N., Castano J.M., Ardanaz E., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Trichopoulou A., Karapetyan T., Rafnsson S.B., Palli D., Krogh V., Tumino R., Vineis P., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Stattin P., Johansson M., Fedirko V., Norat T., Siddiq A., Riboli E., Key T.J.

Cancer Causes Control; 2012; 23(7): 1163-1171

PMID:22674291

Abstract as provided by PubMed

PURPOSE: Data from prospective epidemiological studies in Asian populations and from experimental studies in animals and cell lines suggest a possible protective association between dietary isoflavones and the development of prostate cancer. We examined the association between circulating concentrations of genistein and prostate cancer risk in a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. METHODS: Concentrations of the isoflavone genistein were measured in prediagnostic plasma samples for 1,605 prostate cancer cases and 1,697 matched control participants. Relative risks (RRs) for prostate cancer in relation to plasma concentrations of genistein were estimated by conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Plasma genistein concentrations were not associated with prostate cancer risk; the multivariate relative risk for men in the highest fifth of genistein compared with men in the lowest fifth was 1.00 (95 % confidence interval: 0.79, 1.27; p linear trend = 0.82). There was no evidence of heterogeneity in this association by age at blood collection, country of recruitment, or cancer stage or histological grade. CONCLUSION: Plasma genistein concentration was not associated with prostate cancer risk in this large cohort of European men

Fruit and vegetable consumption and prospective weight change in participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of Smoking, Eating Out of Home, and Obesity study

Vergnaud A.C., Norat T., Romaguera D., Mouw T., May A.M., Romieu I., Freisling H., Slimani N., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Morois S., Kaaks R., Teucher B., Boeing H., Buijsse B., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Overvad K., Jakobsen M.U., Rodriguez L., Agudo A., Sanchez M.J., Amiano P., Huerta J.M., Gurrea A.B., Wareham N., Khaw K.T., Crowe F., Orfanos P., Naska A., Trichopoulou A., Masala G., Pala V., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Mattiello A., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., van Duijnhoven F.J., Drake I., Wirfalt E., Johansson I., Hallmans G., Engeset D., Braaten T., Parr C.L., Odysseos A., Riboli E., Peeters P.H.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2012; 95(1): 184-193

PMID:22170373

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Fruit and vegetable consumption might prevent weight gain through their low energy density and high dietary fiber content. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the association between the baseline consumption of fruit and vegetables and weight change in participants from 10 European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. DESIGN: Diet was assessed at baseline in 373,803 participants by using country-specific validated questionnaires. Weight was measured at baseline and self-reported at follow-up in most centers. Associations between baseline fruit and vegetable intakes (per 100 g/d) and weight change (g/y) after a mean follow-up of 5 y were assessed by using linear mixed-models, with age, sex, total energy intake, and other potential confounders controlled for. RESULTS: After exclusion of subjects with chronic diseases at baseline and subjects who were likely to misreport energy intakes, baseline fruit and vegetable intakes were not associated with weight change overall. However, baseline fruit and vegetable intakes were inversely associated with weight change in men and women who quit smoking during follow-up. We observed weak positive associations between vegetable intake and weight change in women who were overweight, were former smokers, or had high prudent dietary pattern scores and weak inverse associations between fruit intake and weight change in women who were >50 y of age, were of normal weight, were never smokers, or had low prudent dietary pattern scores. CONCLUSIONS: In this large study, higher baseline fruit and vegetable intakes, while maintaining total energy intakes constant, did not substantially influence midterm weight change overall but could help to reduce risk of weight gain in persons who stop smoking. The interactions observed in women deserve additional attention

Dietary intakes and food sources of phytoestrogens in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) 24-hour dietary recall cohort

Zamora-Ros R., Knaze V., Lujan-Barroso L., Kuhnle G.G., Mulligan A.A., Touillaud M., Slimani N., Romieu I., Powell N., Tumino R., Peeters P.H., de Magistris M.S., Ricceri F., Sonestedt E., Drake I., Hjartaker A., Skie G., Mouw T., Wark P.A., Romaguera D., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Ros M., Molina E., Sieri S., Quiros J.R., Huerta J.M., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Masala G., Teucher B., Kaas R., Travis R.C., Dilis V., Benetou V., Trichopoulou A., Amiano P., Ardanaz E., Boeing H., Forster J., Clavel-Chapelon F., Fagherazzi G., Perquier F., Johansson G., Johansson I., Cassidy A., Overvad K., Gonzalez C.A.

Eur J Clin Nutr; 2012; 66(8): 932-941

PMID:22510793

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Phytoestrogens are estradiol-like natural compounds found in plants that have been associated with protective effects against chronic diseases, including some cancers, cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to estimate the dietary intake of phytoestrogens, identify their food sources and their association with lifestyle factors in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Single 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from 36 037 individuals from 10 European countries, aged 35-74 years using a standardized computerized interview programe (EPIC-Soft). An ad hoc food composition database on phytoestrogens (isoflavones, lignans, coumestans, enterolignans and equol) was compiled using data from available databases, in order to obtain and describe phytoestrogen intakes and their food sources across 27 redefined EPIC centres. RESULTS: Mean total phytoestrogen intake was the highest in the UK health-conscious group (24.9 mg/day in men and 21.1 mg/day in women) whereas lowest in Greece (1.3 mg/day) in men and Spain-Granada (1.0 mg/day) in women. Northern European countries had higher intakes than southern countries. The main phytoestrogen contributors were isoflavones in both UK centres and lignans in the other EPIC cohorts. Age, body mass index, educational level, smoking status and physical activity were related to increased intakes of lignans, enterolignans and equol, but not to total phytoestrogen, isoflavone or coumestan intakes. In the UK cohorts, the major food sources of phytoestrogens were soy products. In the other EPIC cohorts the dietary sources were more distributed, among fruits, vegetables, soy products, cereal products, non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages. CONCLUSIONS: There was a high variability in the dietary intake of total and phytoestrogen subclasses and their food sources across European regions

Dietary flavonoid and lignan intake and gastric adenocarcinoma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

Zamora-Ros R., Agudo A., Lujan-Barroso L., Romieu I., Ferrari P., Knaze V., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Leenders M., Travis R.C., Navarro C., Sanchez-Cantalejo E., Slimani N., Scalbert A., Fedirko V., Hjartaker A., Engeset D., Skeie G., Boeing H., Forster J., Li K., Teucher B., Agnoli C., Tumino R., Mattiello A., Saieva C., Johansson I., Stenling R., Redondo M.L., Wallstrom P., Ericson U., Khaw K.T., Mulligan A.A., Trichopoulou A., Dilis V., Katsoulis M., Peeters P.H., Igali L., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Touillaud M., Perquier F., Fagherazzi G., Amiano P., Ardanaz E., Bredsdorff L., Overvad K., Ricceri F., Riboli E., Gonzalez C.A.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2012; 96(6): 1398-1408

PMID:23076618

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Several experimental studies have suggested potential anticarcinogenic effects of flavonoids, although epidemiologic evidence for the impact of dietary flavonoids on risk of gastric cancer (GC) is limited. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between intake of dietary flavonoids and lignans and incident GC. DESIGN: The study followed 477,312 subjects (29.8% men) aged 35-70 y from 10 European countries who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Validated dietary questionnaires and lifestyle information were collected at baseline. A food-composition database on flavonoids and lignans was compiled by using data from USDA and Phenol-Explorer databases. RESULTS: During an average follow-up of 11 y, 683 incident GC cases (57.8% men) were mostly validated by a panel of pathologists and used in this analysis. We observed a significant inverse association between total flavonoid intake and GC risk in women (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.94; for the continuous variable after log(2) transformation) but not in men (HR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.09). In women, significant inverse associations with GC risk were also observed for intakes of some flavonoid subgroups (anthocyanidins, flavonols, flavones, and flavanols), particularly with intestinal type tumors for total flavonoid and flavanol intakes (P-heterogeneity < 0.1). After stratification by smoking status and sex, there was no significant heterogeneity in these associations between ever- and never-smokers. CONCLUSION: Total dietary flavonoid intake is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of GC in women

2011

Metabolic syndrome and risks of colon and rectal cancer: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study

Aleksandrova K., Boeing H., Jenab M., Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita H., Jansen E., van Duijnhoven F.J., Fedirko V., Rinaldi S., Romieu I., Riboli E., Romaguera D., Overvad K., Ostergaard J.N., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Morois S., Masala G., Agnoli C., Panico S., Tumino R., Vineis P., Kaaks R., Lukanova A., Trichopoulou A., Naska A., Bamia C., Peeters P.H., Rodriguez L., Buckland G., Sanchez M.J., Dorronsoro M., Huerta J.M., Barricarte A., Hallmans G., Palmqvist R., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Tsilidis K.K., Pischon T.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila); 2011; 4(11): 1873-1883

PMID:21697276

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is purportedly related to risk of developing colorectal cancer; however, the association of MetS, as defined according to recent international criteria, and colorectal cancer has not been yet evaluated. In particular, it remains unclear to what extent the MetS components individually account for such an association. We addressed these issues in a nested case-control study that included 1,093 incident cases matched (1:1) to controls by using incidence density sampling. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% CIs. MetS was defined according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATPIII), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and the 2009 harmonized definition. Among individual components, abdominal obesity (RR = 1.51; 95% CI: 1.16-1.96) was associated with colon cancer, whereas abnormal glucose metabolism was associated with both colon (RR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.57-2.68) and rectal cancer (RR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.45-2.96). MetS, as defined by each of the definitions, was similarly associated with colon cancer (e.g., RR = 1.91; 95% CI: 1.47-2.42 for MetS by NCEP/ATPIII), whereas MetS by NCEP/ATPIII, but not IDF or harmonized definition, was associated with rectal cancer (RR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.02-2.06). Overall, these associations were stronger in women than in men. However, the association between MetS and colorectal cancer was accounted for by abdominal obesity and abnormal glucose metabolism such that MetS did not provide risk information beyond these components (likelihood ratio test P = 0.10 for MetS by NCEP/ATPIII). These data suggest that simple assessment of abnormal glucose metabolism and/or abdominal obesity to identify individuals at colorectal cancer risk may have higher clinical utility than applying more complex MetS definitions. Cancer Prev Res; 4(11); 1873-83. (c)2011 AACR

Menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer risk: impact of different treatments. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Bakken K., Fournier A., Lund E., Waaseth M., Dumeaux V., Clavel-Chapelon F., Fabre A., Hemon B., Rinaldi S., Chajes V., Slimani N., Allen N.E., Reeves G.K., Bingham S., Khaw K.T., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Rodriguez L., Sanchez M.J., Etxezarreta P.A., Ardanaz E., Tormo M.J., Peeters P.H., Van Gils C.H., Steffen A., Schulz M., Chang-Claude J., Kaaks R., Tumino R., Gallo V., Norat T., Riboli E., Panico S., Masala G., Gonzalez C.A., Berrino F.

Int J Cancer; 2011; 128(1): 144-156

PMID:20232395

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) is characterized by use of different constituents, regimens and routes of administration. We investigated the association between the use of different types of MHT and breast cancer risk in the EPIC cohort study. The analysis is based on data from 133,744 postmenopausal women. Approximately 133,744 postmenopausal women contributed to this analysis. Information on MHT was derived from country-specific self-administered questionnaires with a single baseline assessment. Incident breast cancers were identified through population cancer registries or by active follow-up (mean: 8.6 yr). Overall relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were derived from country-specific Cox proportional hazard models estimates. A total of 4312 primary breast cancers were diagnosed during 1,153,747 person-years of follow-up. Compared with MHT never users, breast cancer risk was higher among current users of estrogen only (RR: 1.42, 95% CI 1.23-1.64) and higher still among current users of combined MHT (RR: 1.77, 95% CI 1.40-2.24; p = 0.02 for combined vs. estrogen-only). Continuous combined regimens conferred a 43% (95% CI: 19-72%) greater risk compared with sequential regimens. There was no significant difference between progesterone and testosterone derivatives in sequential regimens. There was no significant variation in risk linked to the estrogenic component of MHT, neither for oral vs. cutaneous administration nor for estradiol compounds vs. conjugated equine estrogens. Estrogen-only and combined MHT uses were associated with increased breast cancer risk. Continuous combined preparations were associated with the highest risk. Further studies are needed to disentangle the effects of the regimen and the progestin component

Aberrant DNA methylation of cancer-associated genes in gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST)

Balassiano K., Lima S., Jenab M., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Canzian F., Kaaks R., Boeing H., Meidtner K., Trichopoulou A., Laglou P., Vineis P., Panico S., Palli D., Grioni S., Tumino R., Lund E., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Numans M.E., Peeters P.H., Ramon Quiros J., Sanchez M.A., Navarro C., Ardanaz E., Dorronsoro M., Hallmans G., Stenling R., Ehrnstrom R., Regner S., Allen N.E., Travis R.C., Khaw K.T., Offerhaus G.J., Sala N., Riboli E., Hainaut P., Scoazec J.Y., Sylla B.S., Gonzalez C.A., Herceg Z.

Cancer Lett; 2011; 311(1): 85-95

PMID:21831520

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Epigenetic events have emerged as key mechanisms in the regulation of critical biological processes and in the development of a wide variety of human malignancies, including gastric cancer (GC), however precise gene targets of aberrant DNA methylation in GC remain largely unknown. Here, we have combined pyrosequencing-based quantitative analysis of DNA methylation in 98 GC cases and 64 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort and in cancer tissue and non-tumorigenic adjacent tissue of an independent series of GC samples. A panel of 10 cancer-associated genes (CHRNA3, DOK1, MGMT, RASSF1A, p14ARF, CDH1, MLH1, ALDH2, GNMT and MTHFR) and LINE-1 repetitive elements were included in the analysis and their association with clinicopathological characteristics (sex, age at diagnosis, anatomical sub-site, histological sub-type) was examined. Three out of the 10 genes analyzed exhibited a marked hypermethylation, whereas two genes (ALDH2 and MTHFR) showed significant hypomethylation, in gastric tumors. Among differentially methylated genes, we identified new genes (CHRNA3 and DOK1) as targets of aberrant hypermethylation in GC, suggesting that epigenetic deregulation of these genes and their corresponding cellular pathways may promote the development and progression of GC. We also found that global demethylation of tumor cell genomes occurs in GC, consistent with the notion that abnormal hypermethylation of specific genes occurs concomitantly with genome-wide hypomethylation. Age and gender had no significant influence on methylation states, but an association was observed between LINE-1 and MLH1 methylation levels with histological sub-type and anatomical sub-site. This study identifies aberrant methylation patters in specific genes in GC thus providing information that could be exploited as novel biomarkers in clinics and molecular epidemiology of GC

Smoking, Secondhand Smoke, and Cotinine Levels in a Subset of EPIC Cohort

Baltar V.T., Xun W.W., Chuang S.C., Relton C., Ueland P.M., Vollset S.E., Midttun O., Johansson M., Slimani N., Jenab M., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Fagherazzi G., Kaaks R., Rohrmann S., Boeing H., Weikert C., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Boshuizen H.C., Van Gils C.H., Peeters P.H., Agudo A., Barricarte A., Navarro C., Rodriguez L., Castano J.M., Larranaga N., Perez M.J., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Crowe F., Gallo V., Norat T., Tagliabue G., Masala G., Panico S., Sacerdote C., Tumino R., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Bamia C., Rasmuson T., Hallmans G., Roswall N., Tjonneland A., Riboli E., Brennan P., Vineis P.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2011; 20(5): 869-875

PMID:21357382

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Several countries are discussing new legislation regarding the ban on smoking in public places, based on the growing evidence of the hazards of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. The objective of the present study is to quantitatively assess the relationship between smoking, SHS, and serum cotinine levels in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: From a study on lung cancer in the EPIC cohort, questionnaire information on smoking was collected at enrolment, and cotinine was measured in serum. Three statistical models were applied by using samples available in a cross-section design: (i) cotinine levels by categories combining smoking and SHS (n = 859); (ii) the effect of hours of passive smoking exposure in nonsmokers only (n = 107); (iii) the effect of the number of cigarettes consumed per day in current smokers only (n = 832). All models were adjusted for country, sex, age, and body mass index. RESULTS: Among nonsmokers, passive smokers presented significant differences in cotinine compared with nonexposed, with a marked (but not significant) difference among former-smokers. A one hour per day increment of SHS gave rise to a significant 2.58 nmol/L (0.45 ng/mL) increase in mean serum cotinine (P < 0.001). In current smokers, a one cigarette per day increment gave rise to a significant 22.44 nmol/L (3.95 ng/mL) increase in cotinine mean (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: There is clear evidence that not only tobacco smoking but also involuntary exposure increases cotinine levels. Impact: This study strengthens the evidence for the benefits of a smoking ban in public places. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 20(5); 869-75. (c)2011 AACR

Diet and hip fractures among elderly Europeans in the EPIC cohort

Benetou V., Orfanos P., Zylis D., Sieri S., Contiero P., Tumino R., Giurdanella M.C., Peeters P.H., Linseisen J., Nieters A., Boeing H., Weikert C., Pettersson U., Johansson I., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Dorronsoro M., Boffetta P., Trichopoulou A.

Eur J Clin Nutr; 2011; 65(1): 132-139

PMID:20948558

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Evidence on the role of diet during adulthood and beyond on fracture occurrence is limited. We investigated diet and hip fracture incidence in a population of elderly Europeans, participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition study. SUBJECTS/METHODS: 29, 122 volunteers (10,538 men, 18,584 women) aged 60 years and above (mean age: 64.3) from five countries were followed up for a median of 8 years and 275 incident hip fractures (222 women and 53 men) were recorded. Diet was assessed at baseline through validated dietary questionnaires. Data were analyzed through Cox proportional-hazards regression with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: No food group or nutrient was significantly associated with hip fracture occurrence. There were suggestive inverse associations, however, with vegetable consumption (hazard ratio (HR) per increasing sex-specific quintile: 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85-1.01), fish consumption (HR per increasing sex-specific quintile: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.85-1.02) and polyunsaturated lipid intake (HR per increasing sex-specific quintile: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.82-1.02), whereas saturated lipid intake was positively associated with hip fracture risk (HR per increasing sex-specific quintile: 1.13, 95% CI: 0.99-1.29). Consumption of dairy products did not appear to influence the risk (HR per increasing sex-specific quintile: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.93-1.12). CONCLUSIONS: In a prospective study of the elderly, diet, including consumption of dairy products, alcohol and vitamin D, did not appear to play a major role in hip fracture incidence. There is however, weak and statistically non-significant evidence that vegetable and fish consumption and intake of polyunsaturated lipids may have a beneficial, whereas saturated lipid intake a detrimental effect

Anthropometry, physical activity and hip fractures in the elderly

Benetou V., Orfanos P., Benetos I.S., Pala V., Evangelista A., Frasca G., Giurdanella M.C., Peeters P.H., van der Schouw I, Rohrmann S., Linseisen J., Boeing H., Weikert C., Pettersson U., Van Guelpen B., Bueno de Mesquita H.B., Altzibar J., Boffetta P., Trichopoulou A.

Injury; 2011; 42(2): 188-193

PMID:20863492

Abstract as provided by PubMed

INTRODUCTION: Hip fractures constitute a major and growing public health problem amongst the elderly worldwide. We examined the association of anthropometry and physical activity with hip fracture incidence in a cohort of elderly Europeans, participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 27 982 volunteers (10 553 men and 17 429 women) aged 60 years and above from five European countries. Information on anthropometry, physical activity, medical history and other characteristics was collected at baseline. During a median follow-up of 8 years, 261 incident hip fractures (203 women and 58 men) were recorded. Data were analysed through Cox proportional hazard regression with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: A higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with lower hip fracture risk (hazard ratio (HR)per increasing sex-specific-quintile: 0.85, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.77-0.94). Body height was associated with increased hip fracture risk (HR per 5 cm: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.01-1.25). Waist-to-hip ratio was not related to hip fracture risk. Increasing levels of leisure-time physical activity were related to lower risk (HR per increasing tertile: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.70-0.99, p for trend: 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: In a prospective cohort study of elderly Europeans, we found evidence that high body stature increased and high BMI decreased the incidence of hip fractures. After adjustment for BMI,waist to-hip ratio was not associated with hip fracture risk. Leisure-time physical activity appears to play a beneficial role in the prevention of hip fractures

The association of lifetime alcohol use with measures of abdominal and general adiposity in a large-scale European cohort

Bergmann M.M., Schutze M., Steffen A., Boeing H., Halkjaer J., Tjonneland A., Travier N., Agudo A., Slimani N., Rinaldi S., Norat T., Romaguera D., Rohrmann S., Kaaks R., Jakobsen M.U., Overvad K., Ekelund U., Spencer E.A., Rodriguez L., Sanchez M.J., Dorronsoro M., Barricarte A., Chirlaque M.D., Orfanos P., Naska A., Trichopoulou A., Palli D., Grioni S., Vineis P., Panico S., Tumino R., Riboli E., Wareham N.J., Bueno-de-Mesquita B., May A., Peeters P.H.

Eur J Clin Nutr; 2011; 65(10): 1079-1087

PMID:21559044

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Background/Objectives:The relation between lifetime use of alcohol and measures of abdominal and general adiposity is unknown.Subjects/Methods:Among 99 381 men and 158 796 women of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, means of waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI), and odds ratios (OR) for a larger WC than predicted for a given BMI (WClp=positive residuals of gender specific linear regression of BMI on WC) across categories of average lifetime use of alcohol (total, from wine and from beer) were calculated, all adjusted for socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors.Results:WC, WHR and BMI in men using lifetime </=6 g/d alcohol were 95.1 cm, 0.942 and 27.3 kg/m(2), and 96.2 cm, 0.961 and 28.3 kg/m(2) when using >96 g/d. WC and WHR in women was 83.2 cm and 0.813 for </=6 g/d, and 84.6 cm and 0.830 for >60 g/d, whereas BMI deviated only slightly with the lowest BMI (26.7 kg/m(2)) observed for >6-24 g/d. Compared with </=6 g/d, OR for a WClp in both genders increased steadily across categories of alcohol use (up to 1.40 (95% confidence interval 1.32, 1.49) in men using >60 g/d and 1.63 (1.54, 1.73) in women using >24 g/d), though increase was higher for alcohol from beer than from wine (P for difference between beer and wine<0.001 (men) and=0.002 (women)).Conclusion:Lifetime alcohol use is positively related to abdominal and general adiposity in men, possibly following the male weight gain pattern; in women, it is positively related only to abdominal adiposity. In this context, beer may contribute additionally to abdominal adiposity

Variety in vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of bladder cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Buchner F.L., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Ros M.M., Kampman E., Egevad L., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Roswall N., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Touillaud M., Kaaks R., Chang-Claude J., Boeing H., Weikert S., Trichopoulou A., Naska A., Benetou V., Palli D., Sieri S., Vineis P., Tumino R., Panico S., van Duijnhoven F.J., Peeters P.H., Van Gils C.H., Lund E., Gram I.T., Sanchez M.J., Jakszyn P., Larranaga N., Ardanaz E., Navarro C., Rodriguez L., Manjer J., Ehrnstrom R., Hallmans G., Ljungberg B., Key T.J., Allen N.E., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Slimani N., Jenab M., Boffetta P., Kiemeney L.A., Riboli E.

Int J Cancer; 2011; 128(12): 2971-2979

PMID:20979109

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Recent research does not show an association between fruit and vegetable consumption and bladder cancer risk. None of these studies investigated variety in fruit and vegetable consumption, which may capture different aspects of consumption. We investigated whether a varied consumption of vegetables and fruits is associated with bladder cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Detailed data on food consumption and complete follow-up for cancer incidence were available for 452,185 participants, who were recruited from ten European countries. After a mean follow-up of 8.7 years, 874 participants were diagnosed with bladder cancer. Diet diversity scores (DDSs) were used to quantify the variety in fruit and vegetable consumption. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the effect of the DDSs on bladder cancer risk. There was no evidence of a statistically significant association between bladder cancer risk and any of the DDSs when these scores were considered as continuous covariates. However, the hazard ratio (HR) for the highest tertile of the DDS for combined fruit and vegetable consumption was marginally significant compared to the lowest (HR = 1.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.69, p-trend = 0.05). In EPIC, there is no clear association between a varied fruit and vegetable consumption and bladder cancer risk. This finding provides further evidence for the absence of any strong association between fruit and vegetable consumption as measured by a food frequency questionnaire and bladder cancer risk

Genetic Variability of the mTOR Pathway and Prostate Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC)

Campa D., Husing A., Stein A., Dostal L., Boeing H., Pischon T., Tjonneland A., Roswall N., Overvad K., Ostergaard J.N., Rodriguez L., Sala N., Sanchez M.J., Larranaga N., Huerta J.M., Barricarte A., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Travis R.C., Allen N.E., Lagiou P., Trichopoulou A., Trichopoulos D., Palli D., Sieri S., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., van Kranen H., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Hallmans G., Johansson M., Romieu I., Jenab M., Cox D.G., Siddiq A., Riboli E., Canzian F., Kaaks R.

PLoS ONE; 2011; 6(2): e16914

PMID:21373201

Abstract as provided by PubMed

The mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signal transduction pathway integrates various signals, regulating ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis as a function of available energy and amino acids, and assuring an appropriate coupling of cellular proliferation with increases in cell size. In addition, recent evidence has pointed to an interplay between the mTOR and p53 pathways. We investigated the genetic variability of 67 key genes in the mTOR pathway and in genes of the p53 pathway which interact with mTOR. We tested the association of 1,084 tagging SNPs with prostate cancer risk in a study of 815 prostate cancer cases and 1,266 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We chose the SNPs (n = 11) with the strongest association with risk (p<0.01) and sought to replicate their association in an additional series of 838 prostate cancer cases and 943 controls from EPIC. In the joint analysis of first and second phase two SNPs of the PRKCI gene showed an association with risk of prostate cancer (OR(allele) = 0.85, 95% CI 0.78-0.94, p = 1.3x10(-3) for rs546950 and OR(allele) = 0.84, 95% CI 0.76-0.93, p = 5.6x10(-4) for rs4955720). We confirmed this in a meta-analysis using as replication set the data from the second phase of our study jointly with the first phase of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) project. In conclusion, we found an association with prostate cancer risk for two SNPs belonging to PRKCI, a gene which is frequently overexpressed in various neoplasms, including prostate cancer

Genetic variability of the forkhead box O3 and prostate cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer

Campa D., Husing A., Dostal L., Stein A., Drogan D., Boeing H., Tjonneland A., Roswall N., Ostergaard J.N., Overvad K., Rodriguez L., Bonet C., Sanchez M.J., Larranaga N., Huerta J.M., Ardanaz E., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Travis R.C., Allen N.E., Trichopoulou A., Zylis D., Karapetyan T., Palli D., Sieri S., Tumino R., Vineis P., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Lenner P., Johansson M., Jenab M., Cox D., Siddiq A., Kaaks R., Canzian F.

Oncol Rep; 2011; 26(4): 979-986

PMID:21725602

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) has a wide range of functions: it promotes tumor suppression, cell cycle arrest, repair of damaged DNA, detoxification of reactive oxygen species, apoptosis and plays a pivotal role in promoting longevity. FOXO3 is a key downstream target of the PI3K-Akt pathway in response to cellular stimulation by growth factors or insulin and has been proposed as a bridge between ageing and tumor suppression. Three SNPs in the FOXO3 gene (rs3800231, rs9400239 and rs479744) that have been shown to be strongly and consistently associated with longevity, were examined in relation to PC risk in a case control study of 1571 incident PC cases and 1840 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). There was no statistically significant association between the SNPs and PC risk regardless of the model of inheritance (dominant, codomi-nant and recessive). The associations were not modified by disease aggressiveness, circulating levels of steroid sex hormones, or IGFs or BMI. We conclude that polymorphisms in the FOXO3 gene that are associated with longevity are not major risk factors for PC risk, in this population of Caucasian men

Variation in genes coding for AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation on Cancer (EPIC)

Campa D., Claus R., Dostal L., Stein A., Chang-Claude J., Meidtner K., Boeing H., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Overvad K., Rodriguez L., Bonet C., Sanchez M.J., Amiano P., Huerta J.M., Barricarte A., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Travis R.C., Allen N.E., Trichopoulou A., Bamia C., Benetou V., Palli D., Agnoli C., Panico S., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., van Kranen H., Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita H., Peeters P.H., Van Gils C.H., Lenner P., Sund M., Lund E., Gram I.T., Rinaldi S., Chajes V., Romieu I., Engel P., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Siddiq A., Riboli E., Canzian F., Kaaks R.

Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2011; 127(3): 761-767

PMID:21116708

Abstract as provided by PubMed

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensing/signalling intracellular protein which is activated by an increase in the cellular AMP:ATP ratio after ATP depletion. Once activated, AMPK inhibits fatty acid synthesis and the Akt-mTOR pathway, and activates the p53-p21 axis. All these molecular mechanisms are thought to play a key role in breast carcinogenesis. We investigated the genetic variability of four genes encoding AMPK (PRKAA1, PRKAA2, PRKAB1 and PRKAB2). Using a tagging approach and selecting SNPs we covered all the common genetic variation of these genes. We tested association of tagging SNPs in our four candidate genes with breast cancer (BC) risk in a study of 1340 BC cases and 2536 controls nested into the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Given the relevance of AMPK on fatty acid synthesis and the importance of body fatness as a BC risk factor, we tested association of SNPs and body-mass index as well. We observed no statistically significant association between the SNPs in the PRKAs genes and BC risk and BMI after correction for multiple testing

Plasma phospholipid fatty acid concentrations and risk of gastric adenocarcinomas in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST)

Chajes V., Jenab M., Romieu I., Ferrari P., Dahm C.C., Overvad K., Egeberg R., Tjonneland A., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Engel P., Teucher B., Kaaks R., Floegel A., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Dilis V., Karapetyan T., Mattiello A., Tumino R., Grioni S., Palli D., Vineis P., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Numans M.E., Peeters P.H., Lund E., Navarro C., Quiros J.R., Sanchez-Cantalejo E., Gurrea A.B., Dorronsoro M., Regner S., Sonestedt E., Wirfalt E., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Crowe F.L., Rinaldi S., Slimani N., Carneiro F., Riboli E., Gonzalez C.A.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2011; 94(5): 1304-1313

PMID:21993438

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic data suggest that diet is a risk factor in the etiology of gastric cancer. However, the role of dietary fatty acids, a modifiable risk factor, remains relatively unexplored. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the association of plasma phospholipid fatty acid concentrations, as biomarkers of exogenous and endogenously derived fatty acids, with the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Europe Gastric Cancer (EPIC-EURGAST). DESIGN: Fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography in prediagnostic plasma phospholipids from 238 cases matched to 626 controls by age, sex, study center, and date of blood donation. Conditional logistic regression models adjusted for Helicobacter pylori infection status, BMI, smoking, physical activity, education, and energy intake were used to estimate relative cancer risks. RESULTS: Positive risk associations for gastric cancer were observed in the highest compared with the lowest quartiles of plasma oleic acid (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.94), di-homo-gamma-linolenic acid (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.35), alpha-linolenic acid (OR: 3.20; 95% CI: 1.70, 6.06), and the ratio of MUFAs to saturated fatty acids, as an indicator of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 enzyme activity (OR: 1.40; 95% CI: 0.81, 2.43). An inverse risk association was observed with the ratio of linoleic to alpha-linolenic acid (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.66). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that a specific prediagnostic plasma phospholipid fatty acid profile, characterized mainly by high concentrations of oleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and di-homo-gamma-linolenic acid, which presumably reflect both a complex dietary pattern and altered fatty acid metabolism, may be related to increased gastric cancer risk

Ecological-Level Associations Between Highly Processed Food Intakes and Plasma Phospholipid Elaidic Acid Concentrations: Results From a Cross-Sectional Study Within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Chajes V., Biessy C., Byrnes G., Deharveng G., Saadatian-Elahi M., Jenab M., Peeters P.H., Ocke M., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Johansson I., Hallmans G., Manjer J., Wirfalt E., Jakszyn P., Gonzalez C.A., Huerta J.M., Martinez C., Amiano P., Suarez L.R., Ardanaz E., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Overvad K., Jakobsen M.U., Berrino F., Pala V., Palli D., Tumino R., Vineis P., de Magistris M.S., Spencer E.A., Crowe F.L., Bingham S., Khaw K.T., Linseisen J., Rohrmann S., Boeing H., Noethlings U., Olsen K.S., Skeie G., Lund E., Trichopoulou A., Zilis D., Oustoglou E., Clavel-Chapelon F., Riboli E., Slimani N.

Nutr Cancer; 2011; 63(8): 1235-1250

PMID:22043987

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Elaidic acid is the main unnatural trans fatty acid isomer occurring during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils used as ingredients for the formulation of processed foods. The main objective is to assess associations between processed food intakes and plasma phospholipid elaidic acid concentrations within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. A cross-sectional study was used to determine fatty acid profiles in 3,003 subjects from 16 centers. Single 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) were collected using a standardized computerized interview program. Food intakes were computed according to their degree of processing (moderately/nonprocessed foods, processed staple foods, highly processed foods). Adjusted ecological and individual correlations were calculated between processed food intakes and plasma elaidic acid levels. At the population level, mean intakes of highly processed foods were strongly correlated with mean levels of plasma elaidic acid in men (P = 0.0016) and in women (P = 0.0012). At the individual level, these associations remained but at a much lower level in men (r = 0.08, P = 0.006) and in women (r = 0.09, P = 0.0001). The use of an averaged 24-HDR measure of highly processed food intakes is adequate for predicting mean levels of plasma elaidic acid among European populations

A U-shaped relationship between plasma folate and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Chuang S.C., Stolzenberg-Solomon R., Ueland P.M., Vollset S.E., Midttun O., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Overvad K., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Morois S., Clavel-Chapelon F., Teucher B., Kaaks R., Weikert C., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Benetou V., Naska A., Jenab M., Slimani N., Romieu I., Michaud D.S., Palli D., Sieri S., Panico S., Sacerdote C., Tumino R., Skeie G., Duell E.J., Rodriguez L., Molina-Montes E., Huerta J.M., Larranaga N., Gurrea A.B., Johansen D., Manjer J., Ye W., Sund M., Peeters P.H., Jeurnink S., Wareham N., Khaw K.T., Crowe F., Riboli E., Bueno-de-Mesquita B., Vineis P.

Eur J Cancer; 2011; 47(12): 1808-1816

PMID:21411310

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Folate intake has shown an inverse association with pancreatic cancer; nevertheless, results from plasma measurements were inconsistent. The aim of this study is to examine the association between plasma total homocysteine, methionine, folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We conducted a nested case-control study in the EPIC cohort, which has an average of 9.6years of follow-up (1992-2006), using 463 incident pancreatic cancer cases. Controls were matched to each case by center, sex, age (+/-1year), date (+/-1year) and time (+/-3h) at blood collection and fasting status. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for education, smoking status, plasma cotinine concentration, alcohol drinking, body mass index and diabetes status. We observed a U-shaped association between plasma folate and pancreatic cancer risk. The ORs for plasma folate 5, 5-10, 10-15 (reference), 15-20, and >20nmol/L were 1.58 (95% CI=0.72-3.46), 1.39 (0.93-2.08), 1.0 (reference), 0.79 (0.52-1.21), and 1.34 (0.89-2.02), respectively. Methionine was associated with an increased risk in men (per quintile increment: OR=1.17, 95% CI=1.00-1.38) but not in women (OR=0.91, 95% CI=0.78-1.07; p for heterogeneity <0.01). Our results suggest a U-shaped association between plasma folate and pancreatic cancer risk in both men and women. The positive association that we observed between methionine and pancreatic cancer may be sex dependent and may differ by time of follow-up. However, the mechanisms behind the observed associations warrant further investigation

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in childhood and incidence of cancer in adulthood in never smokers in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

Chuang S.C., Gallo V., Michaud D., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Clavel-Chapelon F., Romieu I., Straif K., Palli D., Pala V., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Panico S., Peeters P.H., Lund E., Gram I.T., Manjer J., Borgquist S., Riboli E., Vineis P.

Cancer Causes Control; 2011; 22(3): 487-494

PMID:21279734

Abstract as provided by PubMed

The association between childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and adult cancer risk is controversial; we examined this relationship in never smokers within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Over an average of 10 years, 8,372 cases of cancer were diagnosed in 112,430 never smokers in EPIC. Childhood ETS was self-reported by participants at baseline, along with other lifestyle factors. Hazard ratios (HR) for ETS exposure in childhood and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models stratified by age, sex, and study center and adjusted for education, alcohol drinking, body mass index, physical activity, non-alcoholic energy intake, fruit and vegetable intake, and adulthood ETS exposure. Models were further adjusted for reproductive factors for female cancers, for meat intake for digestive system cancers, and for diabetes status for pancreatic cancer. No association was observed between childhood ETS exposure and overall cancer risks (HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.92-1.02), and for selected sites. The only exception was pancreatic cancer, as previously reported by Vrieling et al., among those who had been exposed daily in childhood (overall HR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.14-3.84). In conclusion, childhood ETS exposure might not be a major risk factor for common cancers in adulthood

Mediterranean dietary pattern and cancer risk in the EPIC cohort

Couto E., Boffetta P., Lagiou P., Ferrari P., Buckland G., Overvad K., Dahm C.C., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Cottet V., Trichopoulos D., Naska A., Benetou V., Kaaks R., Rohrmann S., Boeing H., von Ruesten A., Panico S., Pala V., Vineis P., Palli D., Tumino R., May A., Peeters P.H., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Buchner F.L., Lund E., Skeie G., Engeset D., Gonzalez C.A., Navarro C., Rodriguez L., Sanchez M.J., Amiano P., Barricarte A., Hallmans G., Johansson I., Manjer J., Wirfart E., Allen N.E., Crowe F., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Moskal A., Slimani N., Jenab M., Romaguera D., Mouw T., Norat T., Riboli E., Trichopoulou A.

Br J Cancer; 2011; 104(9): 1493-1499

PMID:21468044

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Although several studies have investigated the association of the Mediterranean diet with overall mortality or risk of specific cancers, data on overall cancer risk are sparse. METHODS: We examined the association between adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern and overall cancer risk using data from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and nutrition, a multi-centre prospective cohort study including 142,605 men and 335,873. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was examined using a score (range: 0-9) considering the combined intake of fruits and nuts, vegetables, legumes, cereals, lipids, fish, dairy products, meat products, and alcohol. Association with cancer incidence was assessed through Cox regression modelling, controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: In all, 9669 incident cancers in men and 21,062 in women were identified. A lower overall cancer risk was found among individuals with greater adherence to Mediterranean diet (hazard ratio=0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.98) for a two-point increment of the Mediterranean diet score. The apparent inverse association was stronger for smoking-related cancers than for cancers not known to be related to tobacco (P (heterogeneity)=0.008). In all, 4.7% of cancers among men and 2.4% in women would be avoided in this population if study subjects had a greater adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern. CONCLUSION: Greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern could reduce overall cancer risk

Biomarker-based evaluation of two 24-h recalls for comparing usual fish, fruit and vegetable intakes across European centers in the EFCOVAL Study

Crispim S.P., Geelen A., Souverein O.W., Hulshof P.J., Ruprich J., Dofkova M., Huybrechts I., De Keyzer W., Lillegaard I.T., Andersen L.F., Lafay L., Rousseau A.S., Ocke M.C., Slimani N., Van \'t Veer P., de Vries J.H.

Eur J Clin Nutr; 2011; S38-S47

PMID:21731004

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: A standardized methodology is important to enable consistent monitoring of dietary intake across European countries. For this reason, we evaluated the comparability of the assessment of usual food intake collected with two non-consecutive computerized 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs) and a food propensity questionnaire (FPQ) among five European centers. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Two 24-HDRs using EPIC-Soft (the software developed to conduct 24-HDRs in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) were performed to determine fish, fruit and vegetable (FV) consumed by 600 adults in Belgium (BE), the Czech Republic (CZ), France (FR), the Netherlands (NL) and Norway (NO) in a validation study. An FPQ was used to identify non-consumers. Information from the 24-HDRs and FPQ were used to estimate individual usual food intake by the Multiple Source Method (MSM). Blood samples were drawn to determine fatty acids in phospholipids and serum carotenoids as biomarkers of fish, and FV intake, respectively. RESULTS: The pooled correlation between usual fish intake and eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid in phospholipids was 0.19 in men and 0.31 in women (P for heterogeneity >0.50) and center-specific correlations ranged between 0.08 (CZ) and 0.28 (BE and NO) in men, and between 0.19 (BE) and 0.55 (FR) in women. For usual FV intake, the pooled correlation with serum carotenoids was 0.31 in men and 0.40 in women (P for heterogeneity >0.10); the center-specific correlations varied between 0.07 (NO) and 0.52 (FR) in men, and between 0.25 (NL) and 0.45 (NO) in women. CoNCLUSION: Two standardized 24-HDRs using EPIC-Soft and an FPQ appeared to be appropriate to rank individuals according to their fish and FV intake in a comparable way among five European centers

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