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Search Result (493 REFERENCES)

2010

Polymorphisms in fatty acid metabolism-related genes are associated with colorectal cancer risk

Hoeft B., Linseisen J., Beckmann L., Muller-Decker K., Canzian F., Husing A., Kaaks R., Vogel U., Jakobsen M.U., Overvad K., Hansen R.D., Knuppel S., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Koumantaki Y., Trichopoulos D., Berrino F., Palli D., Panico S., Tumino R., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., van Duijnhoven F.J., Van Gils C.H., Peeters P.H., Dumeaux V., Lund E., Huerta Castano J.M., Munoz X., Rodriguez L., Barricarte A., Manjer J., Jirstrom K., Van Guelpen B., Hallmans G., Spencer E.A., Crowe F.L., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Morois S., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Chajes V., Jenab M., Boffetta P., Vineis P., Mouw T., Norat T., Riboli E., Nieters A.

Carcinogenesis; 2010; 31(3): 466-472

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignant tumor and the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The crucial role of fatty acids for a number of important biological processes suggests a more in-depth analysis of inter-individual differences in fatty acid metabolizing genes as contributing factor to colon carcinogenesis. We examined the association between genetic variability in 43 fatty acid metabolism-related genes and colorectal risk in 1225 CRC cases and 2032 controls participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Three hundred and ninety two single-nucleotide polymorphisms were selected using pairwise tagging with an r(2) cutoff of 0.8 and a minor allele frequency of >5%. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Haplotype analysis was performed using a generalized linear model framework. On the genotype level, hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase 15-(NAD) (HPGD), phospholipase A2 group VI (PLA2G6) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 were associated with higher risk for CRC, whereas prostaglandin E receptor 2 (PTGER2) was associated with lower CRC risk. A significant inverse association (P < 0.006) was found for PTGER2 GGG haplotype, whereas HPGD AGGAG and PLA2G3 CT haplotypes were significantly (P < 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively) associated with higher risk of CRC. Based on these data, we present for the first time the association of HPGD variants with CRC risk. Our results support the key role of prostanoid signaling in colon carcinogenesis and suggest a relevance of genetic variation in fatty acid metabolism-related genes and CRC risk

Prospective study of physical activity and risk of primary adenocarcinomas of the oesophagus and stomach in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition) cohort

Huerta J.M., Navarro C., Chirlaque M.D., Tormo M.J., Steindorf K., Buckland G., Carneiro F., Johnsen N.F., Overvad K., Stegger J., Tjonneland A., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Morois S., Boeing H., Kaaks R., Rohrmann S., Vigl M., Lagiou P., Trichopoulos D., Trichopoulou A., Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita H., Monninkhof E.M., Numans M.E., Peeters P.H., Mattiello A., Pala V., Palli D., Tumino R., Vineis P., Agudo A., Ardanaz E., Arriola L., Molina-Montes E., Rodriguez L., Lindkvist B., Manjer J., Stenling R., Lund E., Crowe F.L., Key T.J., Khaw K.T., Wareham N.J., Jenab M., Norat T., Romaguera D., Riboli E., Gonzalez C.A.

Cancer Causes Control; 2010; 21(5): 657-669

Abstract as provided by PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the association between types of physical activity (occupational, recreational and household, vigorous and overall) and risk of primary oesophageal (OAC) or gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC). METHODS: From nine European countries, 420,449 participants were recruited between 1991 and 2000 and followed-up for a mean of 8.8 years to register incident GAC and OAC. Information on physical activity (PA), diet, lifestyle and health-related variables was obtained at baseline. Helicobacter pylori infection status was considered in a subset of 1,211 participants. Analyses were repeated by tumour site (cardia/non-cardia) and histological type (intestinal/diffuse). RESULTS: During the follow-up, 410 GAC and 80 OAC occurred. A lower risk of overall and non-cardia GAC was found for increasing levels of a PA index which combined occupational PA with weekly time spent in sports and cycling. The hazard ratio (HR) of GAC was 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50-0.94, for the comparison between active and inactive participants according to the PA index (HR = 0.44, 95% CI:0.26-0.74, for non-cardia GAC). No effect was found for cardia tumours or histological subtypes of GAC. PA of any kind was not associated with OAC. CONCLUSIONS: Overall and distal (non-cardia) gastric tumours were inversely associated with time spent on cycling and sports and a total PA index. No association was found for any type of PA and risk of cardia cancers of the stomach

Serum B vitamin levels and risk of lung cancer

Johansson M., Relton C., Ueland P.M., Vollset S.E., Midttun O., Nygard O., Slimani N., Boffetta P., Jenab M., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Fagherazzi G., Kaaks R., Rohrmann S., Boeing H., Weikert C., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Ros M.M., Van Gils C.H., Peeters P.H., Agudo A., Barricarte A., Navarro C., Rodriguez L., Sanchez M.J., Larranaga N., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Crowe F., Gallo V., Norat T., Krogh V., Masala G., Panico S., Sacerdote C., Tumino R., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Trichopoulos D., Rasmuson T., Hallmans G., Riboli E., Vineis P., Brennan P.

JAMA; 2010; 303(23): 2377-2385

Abstract as provided by PubMed

CONTEXT: B vitamins and factors related to 1-carbon metabolism help to maintain DNA integrity and regulate gene expression and may affect cancer risk. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if 1-carbon metabolism factors are associated with onset of lung cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) recruited 519,978 participants from 10 countries between 1992 and 2000, of whom 385,747 donated blood. By 2006, 899 lung cancer cases were identified and 1770 control participants were individually matched by country, sex, date of birth, and date of blood collection. Serum levels were measured for 6 factors of 1-carbon metabolism and cotinine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Odds ratios (ORs) of lung cancer by serum levels of 4 B vitamins (B(2), B(6), folate [B(9)], and B(12)), methionine, and homocysteine. RESULTS: Within the entire EPIC cohort, the age-standardized incidence rates of lung cancer (standardized to the world population, aged 35-79 years) were 6.6, 44.9, and 156.1 per 100,000 person-years among never, former, and current smokers for men, respectively. The corresponding incidence rates for women were 7.1, 23.9, and 100.9 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. After accounting for smoking, a lower risk for lung cancer was seen for elevated serum levels of B(6) (fourth vs first quartile OR, 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33-0.60; P for trend <.000001), as well as for serum methionine (fourth vs first quartile OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.39-0.69; P for trend <.000001). Similar and consistent decreases in risk were observed in never, former, and current smokers, indicating that results were not due to confounding by smoking. The magnitude of risk was also constant with increasing length of follow-up, indicating that the associations were not explained by preclinical disease. A lower risk was also seen for serum folate (fourth vs first quartile OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.51-0.90; P for trend = .001), although this was apparent only for former and current smokers. When participants were classified by median levels of serum methionine and B(6), having above-median levels of both was associated with a lower lung cancer risk overall (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.31-0.54), as well as separately among never (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.18-0.72), former (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.34-0.76), and current smokers (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.27-0.65). CONCLUSION: Serum levels of vitamin B(6) and methionine were inversely associated with risk of lung cancer

Anthropometric measures and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Lahmann P.H., Cust A.E., Friedenreich C.M., Schulz M., Lukanova A., Kaaks R., Lundin E., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Severinsen M.T., Overvad K., Fournier A., Chabbert-Buffet N., Clavel-Chapelon F., Dossus L., Pischon T., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Naska A., Palli D., Grioni S., Mattiello A., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Redondo M.L., Jakszyn P., Sanchez M.J., Tormo M.J., Ardanaz E., Arriola L., Manjer J., Jirstrom K., Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita H., May A.M., Peeters P.H., Onland-Moret N.C., Bingham S., Khaw K.T., Allen N.E., Spencer E., Rinaldi S., Slimani N., Chajes V., Michaud D., Norat T., Riboli E.

Int J Cancer; 2010; 126(10): 2404-2415

Abstract as provided by PubMed

We examined the associations of measured anthropometric factors, including general and central adiposity and height, with ovarian cancer risk. We also investigated these associations by menopausal status and for specific histological subtypes. Among 226,798 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, there were 611 incident cases of primary, malignant, epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed during a mean 8.9 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for potential confounders. Compared to women with body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2, obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2) was associated with excess ovarian cancer risk for all women combined (HR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.05-1.68; p(trend) = 0.02) and postmenopausal women (HR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.20-2.10; p(trend) = 0.001), but the association was weaker for premenopausal women (HR = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.65-2.06; p(trend) = 0.65). Neither height or weight gain, nor BMI-adjusted measures of fat distribution assessed by waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR) or hip circumference were associated with overall risk. WHR was related to increased risk of mucinous tumors (BMI-adjusted HR per 0.05 unit increment = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.00-1.38). For all women combined, no other significant associations with risk were observed for specific histological subtypes. This large, prospective study provides evidence that obesity is an important modifiable risk factor for epithelial ovarian cancer, particularly among postmenopausal women

Cigar and pipe smoking and cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

McCormack V.A., Agudo A., Dahm C.C., Overvad K., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Kaaks R., Boeing H., Manjer J., Almquist M., Hallmans G., Johansson I., Chirlaque M.D., Barricarte A., Dorronsoro M., Rodriguez L., Redondo M.L., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N., Key T., Riboli E., Boffetta P.

Int J Cancer; 2010; 127(10): 2402-2411

Abstract as provided by PubMed

The carcinogenicity of cigar and pipe smoking is established but the effect of detailed smoking characteristics is less well defined. We examined the effects on cancer incidence of exclusive cigar and pipe smoking, and in combination with cigarettes, among 102,395 men from Denmark, Germany, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom in the EPIC cohort. Hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for cancer during a median 9-year follow-up from ages 35 to 70 years were estimated using proportional hazards models. Compared to never smokers, HR of cancers of lung, upper aerodigestive tract and bladder combined was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.3, 3.8) for exclusive cigar smokers (16 cases), 3.0 (2.1, 4.5) for exclusive pipe smokers (33 cases) and 5.3 (4.4, 6.4) for exclusive cigarette smokers (1,069 cases). For each smoking type, effects were stronger in current smokers than in ex-smokers and in inhalers than in non-inhalers. Ever smokers of both cigarettes and cigars [HR 5.7 (4.4, 7.3), 120 cases] and cigarettes and pipes [5.1 (4.1, 6.4), 247 cases] had as high a raised risk as had exclusive cigarette smokers. In these smokers, the magnitude of the raised risk was smaller if they had switched to cigars or pipes only (i.e., quit cigarettes) and had not compensated with greater smoking intensity. Cigar and pipe smoking is not a safe alternative to cigarette smoking. The lower cancer risk of cigar and pipe smokers as compared to cigarette smokers is explained by lesser degree of inhalation and lower smoking intensity

Occupational exposures contribute to educational inequalities in lung cancer incidence among men: Evidence from the EPIC prospective cohort study

Menvielle G., Boshuizen H., Kunst A.E., Vineis P., Dalton S.O., Bergmann M.M., Hermann S., Veglia F., Ferrari P., Overvad K., Raaschou-Nielsen O., Tjonneland A., Kaaks R., Linseisen J., Palli D., Krogh V., Tumino R., Rodriguez L., Agudo A., Sanchez M.J., Arozena J.M., Cirera L., Ardanaz E., Bingham S., Khaw K.T., Boffetta P., Duell E., Slimani N., Gallo V., Riboli E., Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita H.

Int J Cancer; 2010; 126(8): 1928-1935

Abstract as provided by PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate to what extent occupational exposures may explain socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer incidence after adjusting for smoking and dietary factors. Analyses were based on a subsample of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study), a prospective cohort. The analyses included 703 incident lung cancer cases among men in Denmark, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Spain and Greece. The socioeconomic position was measured using the highest level of education. The estimates of relative indices of inequality (RII) were computed with Cox regression models. We first adjusted for smoking (with detailed information on duration and quantity) and dietary factors (fruits and vegetables consumption) and then for occupational exposures. The exposure to three carcinogens [asbestos, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)] was analyzed. The occupational exposures explained 14% of the socioeconomic inequalities remaining after adjustment for smoking and fruits and vegetables consumption. The inequalities remained nevertheless statistically significant. The RII decreased from 1.87 (95% CI: 1.36-2.56) to 1.75 (1.27-2.41). The decrease was more pronounced when adjusting for asbestos than for heavy metals or PAH. Analyses by birth cohort suggested an effect of occupational exposures among older men, while due to small number of endpoints, no conclusion could be drawn about the role of occupational exposures in educational inequalities among younger men. Our study revealed that the impact of occupational exposures on socioeconomic inequalities in cancer incidence, rarely studied until now, exists while of modest magnitude

Coffee and tea intake and risk of brain tumors in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort study

Michaud D.S., Gallo V., Schlehofer B., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Overvad K., Dahm C.C., Teucher B., Lukanova A., Boeing H., Schutze M., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Kyrozis A., Sacerdote C., Krogh V., Masala G., Tumino R., Mattiello A., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Ros M.M., Peeters P.H., Van Gils C.H., Skeie G., Engeset D., Parr C.L., Ardanaz E., Chirlaque M.D., Dorronsoro M., Sanchez M.J., Arguelles M., Jakszyn P., Nilsson L.M., Melin B.S., Manjer J., Wirfalt E., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Key T.J., Romieu I., Vineis P., Riboli E.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2010; 92(5): 1145-1150

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: In a recent US cohort study, total coffee and tea consumption was inversely associated with risk of glioma, and experimental studies showed that caffeine can slow the invasive growth of glioblastoma. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the relation between coffee and tea intake and the risk of glioma and meningioma in a large European cohort study, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). DESIGN: Data on coffee and tea intake were collected from men and women recruited into the EPIC cohort study. Over an average of 8.5 y of follow-up, 343 cases of glioma and 245 cases of meningioma were newly diagnosed in 9 countries. We used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the relation between coffee and tea and brain tumors. RESULTS: We observed no associations between coffee, tea, or combined coffee and tea consumption and risk of either type of brain tumor when using quantiles based on country-specific distributions of intake. However, a significant inverse association was observed for glioma risk among those consuming >/=100 mL coffee and tea per day compared with those consuming <100 mL/d (hazard ratio: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.97; P = 0.03). The association was slightly stronger in men (hazard ratio: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.34, 1.01) than in women (hazard ratio: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.42, 1.31), although neither was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort study, we observed an inverse association between total coffee and tea consumption and risk of glioma that was consistent with the findings of a recent study. These findings, if further replicated in other studies, may provide new avenues of research on gliomas

Reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use in relation to risk of glioma and meningioma in a large European cohort study

Michaud D.S., Gallo V., Schlehofer B., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Overvad K., Dahm C.C., Kaaks R., Lukanova A., Boeing H., Schutze M., Trichopoulou A., Bamia C., Kyrozis A., Sacerdote C., Agnoli C., Palli D., Tumino R., Mattiello A., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Ros M.M., Peeters P.H., Van Gils C.H., Lund E., Bakken K., Gram I.T., Barricarte A., Navarro C., Dorronsoro M., Sanchez M.J., Rodriguez L., Duell E.J., Hallmans G., Melin B.S., Manjer J., Borgquist S., Khaw K.T., Wareham N., Allen N.E., Tsilidis K.K., Romieu I., Rinaldi S., Vineis P., Riboli E.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2010; 19(10): 2562-2569

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: The etiologies of glioma and meningioma tumors are largely unknown. Although reproductive hormones are thought to influence the risk of these tumors, epidemiologic data are not supportive of this hypothesis; however, few cohort studies have published on this topic. We examined the relation between reproductive factors and the risk of glioma and meningioma among women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: After a mean of 8.4 years of follow-up, 193 glioma and 194 meningioma cases were identified among 276,212 women. Information on reproductive factors and hormone use was collected at baseline. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: No associations were observed between glioma or meningioma risk and reproductive factors, including age at menarche, parity, age at first birth, menopausal status, and age at menopause. A higher risk of meningioma was observed among postmenopausal women who were current users of hormone replacement therapy (HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.18-2.71) compared with never users. Similarly, current users of oral contraceptives were at higher risk of meningioma than never users (HR, 3.61; 95% CI, 1.75-7.46). CONCLUSION: Our results do not support a role for estrogens and glioma risk. Use of exogenous hormones, especially current use, seems to increase meningioma risk. However, these findings could be due to diagnostic bias and require confirmation. IMPACT: Elucidating the role of hormones in brain tumor development has important implications and needs to be further examined using biological measurements

Dietary beta-carotene, vitamin C and E intake and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Nagel G., Linseisen J., Van Gils C.H., Peeters P.H., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Romieu I., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Roswall N., Witt P.M., Overvad K., Rohrmann S., Kaaks R., Drogan D., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Stratigakou V., Zylis D., Engeset D., Lund E., Skeie G., Berrino F., Grioni S., Mattiello A., Masala G., Tumino R., Zanetti R., Ros M.M., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Ardanaz E., Sanchez M.J., Huerta J.M., Amiano P., Rodriguez L., Manjer J., Wirfalt E., Lenner P., Hallmans G., Spencer E.A., Key T.J., Bingham S., Khaw K.T., Rinaldi S., Slimani N., Boffetta P., Gallo V., Norat T., Riboli E.

Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010; 119(3): 753-765

Abstract as provided by PubMed

So far, studies on dietary antioxidant intake, including beta-carotene, vitamin C and vitamin E, and breast cancer risk are inconclusive. Thus, we addressed this question in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. During a median follow-up time of 8.8 years, 7,502 primary invasive breast cancer cases were identified. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). All analyses were run stratified by menopausal status at recruitment and, additionally, by smoking status, alcohol intake, use of exogenous hormones and use of dietary supplements. In the multivariate analyses, dietary intake of beta-carotene, vitamin C and E was not associated with breast cancer risk in premenopausal [highest vs. lowest quintile: HR, 1.04 (95% CI, 0.85-1.27), 1.12 (0.92-1.36) and 1.11 (0.84-1.46), respectively] and postmenopausal women [0.93 (0.82-1.04), 0.98 (0.87-1.11) and 0.92 (0.77-1.11), respectively]. However, in postmenopausal women using exogenous hormones, high intake of beta-carotene [highest vs. lowest quintile; HR 0.79 (95% CI, 0.66-0.96), P (trend) 0.06] and vitamin C [0.88 (0.72-1.07), P (trend) 0.05] was associated with reduced breast cancer risk. In addition, dietary beta-carotene was associated with a decreased risk in postmenopausal women with high alcohol intake. Overall, dietary intake of beta-carotene, vitamin C and E was not related to breast cancer risk in neither pre- nor postmenopausal women. However, in subgroups of postmenopausal women, a weak protective effect between beta-carotene and vitamin E from food and breast cancer risk cannot be excluded

Plasma phytanic acid concentration and risk of prostate cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Price A.J., Allen N.E., Appleby P.N., Crowe F.L., Jenab M., Rinaldi S., Slimani N., Kaaks R., Rohrmann S., Boeing H., Pischon T., Benetou V., Naska A., Trichopoulou A., Palli D., Sieri S., Tumino R., Vineis P., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Donate I., Gonzalez C.A., Sanchez M.J., Chirlaque M.D., Ardanaz E., Larranaga N., Khaw K.T., Rodwell S., Gallo V., Michaud D.S., Riboli E., Key T.J.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2010; 91(6): 1769-1776

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Phytanic acid, a fatty acid predominantly obtained from foods high in ruminant fat, may have a biological role in the up-regulation of the protein alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase, which is overexpressed in prostate cancer tissue. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between plasma concentrations of phytanic acid and subsequent risk of prostate cancer. DESIGN: Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, 566 incident prostate cancer cases from Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom were individually matched to 566 controls by study center, age at recruitment, and time of day and duration of fasting at blood collection. Phytanic acid concentrations were measured by using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay. RESULTS: In controls, plasma phytanic acid concentration was strongly correlated with dairy fat intake (r = 0.49, P < 0.0001), varied significantly by country (P for heterogeneity < 0.0001), and decreased with age (P for trend = 0.02) and duration of fasting at blood collection (P for trend = 0.002). There was no significant association of phytanic acid with prostate cancer risk overall (odds ratio for a doubling in concentration: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.21; P for trend = 0.53) or by stage or grade of disease. However, in men who had fasted (>3 h) at blood collection, the odds ratio for prostate cancer was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.60; P for trend = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Plasma phytanic acid concentration is significantly associated with intake of dairy fat but not with overall risk of prostate cancer in this European population

Mediterranean dietary patterns and prospective weight change in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA project

Romaguera D., Norat T., Vergnaud A.C., Mouw T., May A.M., Agudo A., Buckland G., Slimani N., Rinaldi S., Couto E., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Cottet V., Rohrmann S., Teucher B., Bergmann M., Boeing H., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Jakobsen M.U., Dahm C.C., Travier N., Rodriguez L., Sanchez M.J., Amiano P., Barricarte A., Huerta J.M., Luan J., Wareham N., Key T.J., Spencer E.A., Orfanos P., Naska A., Trichopoulou A., Palli D., Agnoli C., Mattiello A., Tumino R., Vineis P., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Buchner F.L., Manjer J., Wirfalt E., Johansson I., Hellstrom V., Lund E., Braaten T., Engeset D., Odysseos A., Riboli E., Peeters P.H.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2010; 92(4): 912-921

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: There is an association between a greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet and a reduced risk of developing chronic diseases. However, it is not clear whether this dietary pattern may be protective also against the development of obesity. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the association between the adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP), prospective weight change, and the incidence of overweight or obesity. DESIGN: We conducted a prospective cohort study [the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol Consumption, Cessation of Smoking, Eating Out of Home, and Obesity (EPIC-PANACEA) project] in 373,803 individuals (103,455 men and 270,348 women; age range: 25-70 y) from 10 European countries. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at recruitment and after a median follow-up time of 5 y. The relative Mediterranean Diet Score (rMED; score range: 0-18) was used to assess adherence to the MDP according to the consumption of 9 dietary components that are characteristic of the Mediterranean diet. The association between the rMED and 5-y weight change was modeled through multiadjusted mixed-effects linear regression. RESULTS: Individuals with a high adherence to the MDP according to the rMED (11-18 points) showed a 5-y weight change of -0.16 kg (95% CI: -0.24, -0.07 kg) and were 10% (95% CI: 4%, 18%) less likely to develop overweight or obesity than were individuals with a low adherence to the MDP (0-6 points). The low meat content of the Mediterranean diet seemed to account for most of its positive effect against weight gain. CONCLUSION: This study shows that promoting the MDP as a model of healthy eating may help to prevent weight gain and the development of obesity

Plasma cytokines and future risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): a case-control study nested in the Italian European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Saberi Hosnijeh F., Krop E.J., Scoccianti C., Krogh V., Palli D., Panico S., Tumino R., Sacredote C., Nawroly N., Portengen L., Linseisen J., Vineis P., Vermeulen R.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2010; 19(6): 1577-1584

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Recently, biological markers related to the immune system such as cytokines have been studied to further understand the etiology of non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). However, to date, there are no studies that have studied cytokine levels prospectively in relation to NHL risk in the general population. METHODS: Using bead-based immunoassays, plasma levels of 11 cytokines, 4 chemokines, and 1 adhesion molecules were measured in prediagnostic blood samples of 86 NHL cases and 86 matched controls (average time between blood collection and diagnosis, 4.5 y). Conditional logistic regression adjusted for body mass index and alcohol consumption was used to analyze the association between individual plasma cytokine levels and the risk of developing NHL. RESULTS: In multivariate models, excluding cases diagnosed within 2 years after inclusion, we observed a significant association for interleukin 2 (IL2; P trend = 0.004), interferon (IFN)-gamma (P trend = 0.05), and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) (P trend = 0.04). Subanalyses of B-cell NHL patients showed a significant association with IL2 (P trend = 0.003), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha; P trend = 0.03), and ICAM (P trend = 0.04) and a borderline association with IL5 (P trend = 0.07) and IFN-gamma (P trend = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest, in a prospective setting, a possible association between plasma levels of IL2, ICAM, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha with NHL risk and provide some evidence that risk of NHL might be related to a downregulation of T helper 1 cytokines. IMPACT: Identification of subtle changes in immune response regulation quantified by plasma cytokine levels possibly provides new insights in the etiology of NHL

Oral contraceptives, reproductive history and risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Tsilidis K.K., Allen N.E., Key T.J., Bakken K., Lund E., Berrino F., Fournier A., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Overvad K., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Byrnes G., Chajes V., Rinaldi S., Chang-Claude J., Kaaks R., Bergmann M., Boeing H., Koumantaki Y., Stasinopoulou G., Trichopoulou A., Palli D., Tagliabue G., Panico S., Tumino R., Vineis P., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., van Duijnhoven F.J., Van Gils C.H., Peeters P.H., Rodriguez L., Gonzalez C.A., Sanchez M.J., Chirlaque M.D., Barricarte A., Dorronsoro M., Borgquist S., Manjer J., Van Guelpen B., Hallmans G., Rodwell S.A., Khaw K.T., Norat T., Romaguera D., Riboli E.

Br J Cancer; 2010; 103(11): 1755-1759

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Background:Oral contraceptive use and reproductive factors may initiate long-term changes to the hormonal milieu and thereby, possibly influence colorectal cancer risk.Methods:We examined the association of hormonal and reproductive factors with risk of colorectal cancer among 337 802 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, of whom 1878 developed colorectal cancer.Results:After stratification for center and age, and adjustment for body mass index, smoking, diabetes mellitus, physical activity and alcohol consumption, ever use of oral contraceptives was marginally inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (hazard ratio (HR), 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83-1.02), although this association was stronger among post-menopausal women (HR, 0.84; 95% CI: 0.74-0.95). Duration of oral contraceptive use and reproductive factors, including age at menarche, age at menopause, type of menopause, ever having an abortion, parity, age at first full-term pregnancy and breastfeeding, were not associated with colorectal cancer risk.Conclusion:Our findings provide limited support for a potential inverse association between oral contraceptives and colorectal cancer risk

No association between educational level and pancreatic cancer incidence in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

van Boeckel P.G., Boshuizen H.C., Siersema P.D., Vrieling A., Kunst A.E., Ye W., Sund M., Michaud D.S., Gallo V., Spencer E.A., Trichopoulou A., Benetou V., Orfanos P., Cirera L., Duell E.J., Rohrmann S., Hemann S., Masala G., Manjer J., Mattiello A., Lindkvist B., Sanchez M.J., Pala V., Peeters P.H., Braaten T., Tjonneland A., Dalton S.O., Larranaga N., Dorronsoro M., Overvad K., Illner A.K., Ardanaz E., Marron M., Straif K., Riboli E., Bueno-de-Mesquita B.

Cancer Epidemiol; 2010; 34(6): 696-701

Abstract as provided by PubMed

INTRODUCTION: Until now, studies examining the relationship between socioeconomic status and pancreatic cancer incidence have been inconclusive. AIM: To prospectively investigate to what extent pancreatic cancer incidence varies according to educational level within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. METHODS: In the EPIC study, socioeconomic status at baseline was measured using the highest level of education attained. Hazard ratios by educational level and a summary index, the relative indices of inequality (RII), were estimated using Cox regression models stratified by age, gender, and center and adjusted for known risk factors. In addition, we conducted separate analyses by age, gender and geographical region. RESULTS: Within the source population of 407, 944 individuals at baseline, 490 first incident primary pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases were identified in 9 European countries. The crude difference in risk of pancreatic cancer according to level of education was small and not statistically significant (RII=1.14, 95% CI 0.80-1.62). Adjustment for known risk factors reduced the inequality estimates to only a small extent. In addition, no statistically significant associations were observed for age groups (adjusted RII(</= 60 years)=0.85, 95% CI 0.44-1.64, adjusted RII(>60 years)=1.18, 95% CI 0.73-1.90), gender (adjusted RII(male)=1.20, 95% CI 0.68-2.10, adjusted RII(female)=0.96, 95% CI 0.56-1.62) or geographical region (adjusted RII(Northern Europe)=1.14, 95% CI 0.81-1.61, adjusted RII(Middle Europe)=1.72, 95% CI 0.93-3.19, adjusted RII(Southern Europe)=0.75, 95% CI 0.32-1.80). CONCLUSION: Despite large educational inequalities in many risk factors within the EPIC study, we found no evidence for an association between educational level and the risk of developing pancreatic cancer in this European cohort

Meat consumption and prospective weight change in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA study

Vergnaud A.C., Norat T., Romaguera D., Mouw T., May A.M., Travier N., Luan J., Wareham N., Slimani N., Rinaldi S., Couto E., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Cottet V., Palli D., Agnoli C., Panico S., Tumino R., Vineis P., Agudo A., Rodriguez L., Sanchez M.J., Amiano P., Barricarte A., Huerta J.M., Key T.J., Spencer E.A., Bueno-de-Mesquita B., Buchner F.L., Orfanos P., Naska A., Trichopoulou A., Rohrmann S., Hermann S., Boeing H., Buijsse B., Johansson I., Hellstrom V., Manjer J., Wirfalt E., Jakobsen M.U., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Lund E., Braaten T., Engeset D., Odysseos A., Riboli E., Peeters P.H.

Am J Clin Nutr; 2010; 92(2): 398-407

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Meat intake may be related to weight gain because of its high energy and fat content. Some observational studies have shown that meat consumption is positively associated with weight gain, but intervention studies have shown mixed results. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the association between consumption of total meat, red meat, poultry, and processed meat and weight gain after 5 y of follow-up, on average, in the large European population who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of Smoking, Eating Out of Home and Obesity (EPIC-PANACEA) project. DESIGN: A total of 103,455 men and 270,348 women aged 25-70 y were recruited between 1992 and 2000 in 10 European countries. Diet was assessed at baseline with the use of country-specific validated questionnaires. A dietary calibration study was conducted in a representative subsample of the cohort. Weight and height were measured at baseline and self-reported at follow-up in most centers. Associations between energy from meat (kcal/d) and annual weight change (g/y) were assessed with the use of linear mixed models, controlled for age, sex, total energy intake, physical activity, dietary patterns, and other potential confounders. RESULTS: Total meat consumption was positively associated with weight gain in men and women, in normal-weight and overweight subjects, and in smokers and nonsmokers. With adjustment for estimated energy intake, an increase in meat intake of 250 g/d (eg, one steak at approximately 450 kcal) would lead to a 2-kg higher weight gain after 5 y (95% CI: 1.5, 2.7 kg). Positive associations were observed for red meat, poultry, and processed meat. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that a decrease in meat consumption may improve weight management

Cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Vrieling A., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Boshuizen H.C., Michaud D.S., Severinsen M.T., Overvad K., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Kaaks R., Rohrmann S., Boeing H., Nothlings U., Trichopoulou A., Moutsiou E., Dilis V., Palli D., Krogh V., Panico S., Tumino R., Vineis P., Van Gils C.H., Peeters P.H., Lund E., Gram I.T., Rodriguez L., Agudo A., Larranaga N., Sanchez M.J., Navarro C., Barricarte A., Manjer J., Lindkvist B., Sund M., Ye W., Bingham S., Khaw K.T., Roddam A., Key T., Boffetta P., Duell E.J., Jenab M., Gallo V., Riboli E.

Int J Cancer; 2010; 126(10): 2394-2403

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer. However, prospective data for most European countries are lacking, and epidemiologic studies on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in relation to pancreatic cancer risk are scarce. We examined the association of cigarette smoking and exposure to ETS with pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). This analysis was based on 465,910 participants, including 524 first incident pancreatic cancer cases diagnosed after a median follow-up of 8.9 years. Estimates of risk were obtained by Cox proportional hazard models and adjusted for weight, height, and history of diabetes mellitus. An increased risk of pancreatic cancer was found for current cigarette smokers compared with never smokers (HR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.36-2.15), and risk increased with greater intensity and pack-years. Former cigarette smokers who quit for less than 5 years were at increased risk of pancreatic cancer (HR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.23-2.56), but risk was comparable to never smokers after quitting for 5 years or more. Pancreatic cancer risk was increased among never smokers daily exposed to ETS (for many hours) during childhood (HR = 2.61, 95% CI = 0.96-7.10) and exposed to ETS at home and/or work (HR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.00-2.39). These results suggest that both active cigarette smoking, as well as exposure to ETS, is associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer and that risk is reduced to levels of never smokers within 5 years of quitting

2009

A prospective analysis of the association between macronutrient intake and renal cell carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Allen N.E., Roddam A.W., Sieri S., Boeing H., Jakobsen M.U., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Vineis P., Contiero P., Palli D., Tumino R., Mattiello A., Kaaks R., Rohrmann S., Trichopoulou A., Zilis D., Koumantaki Y., Peeters P.H., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Barricarte A., Rodriguez L., Dorronsoro M., Sanchez M.J., Chirlaque M.D., Esquius L., Manjer J., Wallstrom P., Ljungberg B., Hallmans G., Bingham S., Khaw K.T., Boffetta P., Norat T., Mouw T., Riboli E.

Int J Cancer; 2009; 125(4): 982-987

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Previous case-control studies have suggested that a high intake of animal foods and its associated nutrients are associated with an increased risk of renal cell carcinoma, although data from prospective studies are limited. We report here on the relationship between macronutrient intake and renal cell carcinoma incidence among 435,293 participants enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the association of dietary intake of fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber and cholesterol and risk of renal cell carcinoma adjusted for age, sex, center, height, body mass index, physical activity, education, smoking, menopausal status, alcohol and energy intake. During an average 8.8 years of follow-up, 507 renal cell carcinoma cases occurred. Risk of renal cell carcinoma was not associated with macronutrient intake, including nutrients derived from animal sources. Our results indicate that macronutrient intake is not associated with risk of renal cell carcinoma in this cohort of European men and women

A cross-sectional analysis of physical activity and obesity indicators in European participants of the EPIC-PANACEA study

Besson H., Ekelund U., Luan J., May A.M., Sharp S., Travier N., Agudo A., Slimani N., Rinaldi S., Jenab M., Norat T., Mouw T., Rohrmann S., Kaaks R., Bergmann M., Boeing H., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Overvad K., Andreasen E.L., Johnsen N.F., Halkjaer J., Gonzalez C., Rodriguez L., Sanchez M.J., Arriola L., Barricarte A., Navarro C., Key T.J., Spencer E.A., Orfanos P., Naska A., Trichopoulou A., Manjer J., Wirfalt E., Lund E., Palli D., Agnoli C., Vineis P., Panico S., Tumino R., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., van den Berg S.W., Odysseos A.D., Riboli E., Wareham N.J., Peeters P.H.

Int J Obes (Lond); 2009; 33(4): 497-506

Abstract as provided by PubMed

OBJECTIVES: Cross-sectional data suggest a strong association between low levels of physical activity and obesity. The EPIC-PANACEA (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of Smoking, Eating out of home And obesity) project was designed to investigate the associations between physical activity and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference based on individual data collected across nine European countries. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 519 931 volunteers were recruited between 1992 and 2000, of whom 405 819 had data on main variables of interest. Height, body weight and waist circumference were measured using standardized procedures. Physical activity was assessed using a validated four-category index reflecting a self-reported usual activity during work and leisure time. The associations between physical activity and BMI and waist circumference were estimated using multilevel mixed effects linear regression models, adjusted for age, total energy intake, smoking status, alcohol consumption and educational level. RESULTS: A total of 125 629 men and 280 190 women with a mean age of 52.9 (s.d. 9.7) and 51.5 (s.d. 10.0) years, respectively were included. The mean BMI was 26.6 kg/m(2) (s.d. 3.6) in men and 25.0 kg/m(2) (s.d. 4.5) in women. Fifty percent of men and 30% of women were categorized as being active or moderately active. A one-category difference in the physical activity index was inversely associated with a difference of 0.18 kg/m(2) in the mean BMI (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.11, 0.24) and 1.04-cm (95% CI 0.82, 1.26) difference in waist circumference in men. The equivalent figures for women were 0.31 kg/m(2) (95% CI 0.23, 0.38) and 0.90 cm (95% CI 0.71, 1.08), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity is inversely associated with both BMI and waist circumference across nine European countries. Although we cannot interpret the association causally, our results were observed in a large and diverse cohort independently from many potential confounders

Consumption of vegetables and fruit and the risk of bladder cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Buchner F.L., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Ros M.M., Kampman E., Egevad L., Overvad K., Raaschou-Nielsen O., Tjonneland A., Roswall N., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Touillaud M., Chang-Claude J., Kaaks R., Boeing H., Weikert S., Trichopoulou A., Lagiou P., Trichopoulos D., Palli D., Sieri S., Vineis P., Tumino R., Panico S., Vrieling A., Peeters P.H., Van Gils C.H., Lund E., Gram I.T., Engeset D., Martinez C., Gonzalez C.A., Larranaga N., Ardanaz E., Navarro C., Rodriguez L., Manjer J., Ehrnstrom R.A., Hallmans G., Ljungberg B., Allen N.E., Roddam A.W., Bingham S., Khaw K.T., Slimani N., Boffetta P., Jenab M., Mouw T., Michaud D.S., Kiemeney L.A., Riboli E.

Int J Cancer; 2009; 125(11): 2643-2651

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Previous epidemiologic studies found inconsistent associations between vegetables and fruit consumption and the risk of bladder cancer. We therefore investigated the association between vegetable and fruit consumption and the risk of bladder cancer among participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Data on food consumption and complete follow-up for cancer occurrence was available for a total of 478,533 participants, who were recruited in 10 European countries. Estimates of rate ratios were obtained by Cox proportional hazard models, stratified by age at recruitment, gender and study centre, and adjusted for total energy intake, smoking status, duration of smoking and lifetime intensity of smoking. A calibration study in a subsample was used to control for dietary measurement errors. After a mean follow-up of 8.7 years, 1015 participants were newly diagnosed with bladder cancer. Increments of 100 g/day in fruit and vegetable consumption combined did not affect bladder cancer risk (i.e., calibrated HR = 0.98; 95%CI: 0.95-1.01). Borderline statistically significant lower bladder cancer risks were found among never smokers with increased consumption of fruit and vegetables combined (HR = 0.94 95%CI: 0.87-1.00 with increments of 100 g/day; calibrated HR = 0.92 95%CI 0.79-1.06) and increased consumption of apples and pears (hard fruit; calibrated HR = 0.90 95%CI: 0.82-0.98 with increments of 25 g/day). For none of the associations a statistically significant interaction with smoking status was found. Our findings do not support an effect of fruit and vegetable consumption, combined or separately, on bladder cancer risk

The Association between Diet and Serum Concentrations of IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Crowe F.L., Key T.J., Allen N.E., Appleby P.N., Roddam A., Overvad K., Gronbaek H., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Dossus L., Boeing H., Kroger J., Trichopoulou A., Dilis V., Trichopoulos D., Boutron-Ruault M.C., De Lauzon B., Clavel-Chapelon F., Palli D., Berrino F., Panico S., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Vrieling A., Van Gils C.H., Peeters P.H., Gram I.T., Skeie G., Lund E., Rodriguez L., Jakszyn P., Molina-Montes E., Tormo M.J., Barricarte A., Larranaga N., Khaw K.T., Bingham S., Rinaldi S., Slimani N., Norat T., Gallo V., Riboli E., Kaaks R.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2009; 18(5): 1333-1340

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP) have been associated with the risk of several types of cancer. Dietary correlates of IGF-I and IGFBPs are not yet well established. The objective of this study was to assess the association between dietary intake and serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 in a cross-sectional analysis of 4,731 men and women taking part in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Diet was assessed using country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 were measured, and the associations between diet and IGF-I and IGFBPs were assessed using multiple linear regression adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, smoking status, and alcohol and energy intake. Each 1 SD increment increase in total and dairy protein and calcium intake was associated with an increase in IGF-I concentration of 2.5%, 2.4%, and 3.3%, respectively (P for trend <0.001 for all) and a decrease in IGFBP-2 of 3.5%, 3.5%, and 5.4% (P for trend <0.001 for all), respectively. There were no significant associations between the intake of protein or calcium from nondairy sources and IGF-I. The results from this large cross-sectional analysis show that either the intake of dairy protein or calcium is an important dietary determinant of IGF-I and IGFBP-2 concentrations; however, we suggest that it is more likely to be protein from dairy products. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(5):1333-40)

Total dietary carbohydrate, sugar, starch and fibre intakes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Cust A.E., Skilton M.R., van Bakel M.M.E., Halkjaer J., Olsen A., Agnoli C., Psaltopoulou T., Buurma E., Sonestedt E., Chirlaque M.D., Rinaldi S., Tjonneland A., Jensen M.K., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Kaaks R., Nothlings U., Chloptsios Y., Zylis D., Mattiello A., Caini S., Ocke M.C., van der Schouw Y.T., Skeie G., Parr C.L., Molina-Montes E., Manjer J., Johansson I., McTaggart A., Key T.J., Bingham S., Riboli E., Slimani N.

Eur J Clin Nutr; 2009; S37-S60

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Objective: To describe dietary carbohydrate intakes and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 subjects, aged between 35-74 years, were administered a standardized, 24-h dietary recall using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes (g/day) of total carbohydrate, sugars, starch and fibre were estimated using the standardized EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB). Mean intakes were adjusted for age, total energy intake, height and weight, and were weighted by season and day of recall. Results: Adjusted mean total carbohydrate intakes were highest in Italy and in the UK health-conscious cohort, and were lowest in Spain, Greece and France. Total fibre intakes were highest in the UK health-conscious cohort and lowest in Sweden and the UK general population. Bread contributed the highest proportion of carbohydrates (mainly starches) in every centre. Fruit consumption contributed a greater proportion of total carbohydrates (mainly sugars) among women than among men, and in southern centres compared with northern centres. Bread, fruits and vegetables represented the largest sources of fibre, but food sources varied considerably between centres. In stratified analyses, carbohydrate intakes tended to be higher among subjects who were physically active, never-smokers or non-drinkers of alcohol. Conclusions: Dietary carbohydrate intakes and in particular their food sources varied considerably between these 10 European countries. Intakes also varied according to gender and lifestyle factors. These data will form the basis for future aetiological analyses of the role of dietary carbohydrates in influencing health and disease. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2009) 63, S37-S60; doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2009.74

Reproducibility and relative validity of dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load assessed by the food-frequency questionnaire used in the Dutch cohorts of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Du H., van der A D.L., van Bakel M.M., Verberne L.D., Ocke M., Feskens E.J.

Br J Nutr; 2009; 102(4): 601-604

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Limited information is available on the reproducibility and validity of dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) estimated by habitual diet assessment methods such as FFQ, including the FFQ used in the Dutch cohorts of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. To examine the reproducibility and relative validity of GI and GL, we used data from 121 Dutch men and women aged 23-72 years. They completed the FFQ three times at intervals of 6 months and twelve 24-h dietary recalls (24HDR) monthly during 1991-2. GI and GL were calculated using published values. Intra-class correlation coefficients of the three repeated FFQ were 0.78 for GI and 0.74 for GL. Pearson correlation coefficients between the first FFQ and the weighted average of the 24HDR were 0.63 for both GI and GL. Weighted kappa values between the first FFQ and the average of the 24HDR (in quintiles) were 0.40 for GI and 0.41 for GL. Bland-Altman plots showed a proportional bias in GI (beta = 0.46), but not in GL (beta = 0.06). In conclusion, this FFQ can be used in epidemiological studies to investigate the relationship of GI and GL with disease risks, but the proportional bias should be taken into account when using this FFQ to assess the absolute GI values

A bivariate measurement error model for nitrogen and potassium intakes to evaluate the performance of regression calibration in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

Ferrari P., Roddam A., Fahey M.T., Jenab M., Bamia C., Ocke M., Amiano P., Hjartaker A., Biessy C., Rinaldi S., Huybrechts I., Tjonneland A., Dethlefsen C., Niravong M., Clavel-Chapelon F., Linseisen J., Boeing H., Oikonomou E., Orfanos P., Palli D., de Magistris M.S., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Peeters P.H.M., Parr C.L., Braaten T., Dorronsoro M., Berenguer T., Gullberg B., Johansson I., Welch A.A., Riboli E., Bingham S., Slimani N.

Eur J Clin Nutr; 2009; S179-S187

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Objectives: Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, the performance of 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) measurements as reference measurements in a linear regression calibration model is evaluated critically at the individual (within-centre) and aggregate (between-centre) levels by using unbiased estimates of urinary measurements of nitrogen and potassium intakes. Methods: Between 1995 and 1999, 1072 study subjects (59% women) from 12 EPIC centres volunteered to collect 24-h urine samples. Log-transformed questionnaire, 24-HDR and urinary measurements of nitrogen and potassium intakes were analysed in a multivariate measurement error model to estimate the validity of coefficients and error correlations in self-reported dietary measurements. In parallel, correlations between means of 24-HDR and urinary measurements were computed. Linear regression calibration models were used to estimate the regression dilution (attenuation) factors. Results: After adjustment for sex, centre, age, body mass index and height, the validity coefficients for 24-HDRs were 0.285 (95% confidence interval: 0.194, 0.367) and 0.371 (0.291, 0.446) for nitrogen and potassium intakes, respectively. The attenuation factors estimated in a linear regression calibration model were 0.368 (0.228, 0.508) for nitrogen and 0.500 (0.361, 0.639) for potassium intakes; only the former was different from the estimate obtained using urinary measurements in the measurement error model. The aggregate-level correlation coefficients between means of urinary and 24-HDR measurements were 0.838 (0.637, 0.932) and 0.756 (0.481, 0.895) for nitrogen and potassium intakes, respectively. Conclusions: This study suggests that 24-HDRs can be used as reference measurements at the individual and aggregate levels for potassium intake, whereas, for nitrogen intake, good performance is observed for between-centre calibration, but some limitations are apparent at the individual level. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2009) 63, S179-S187; doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2009.80

Intake of total, animal and plant proteins, and their food sources in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Halkjaer J., Olsen A., Bjerregaard L.J., Deharveng G., Tjonneland A., Welch A.A., Crowe F.L., Wirfalt E., Hellstrom V., Niravong M., Touvier M., Linseisen J., Steffen A., Ocke M.C., Peeters P.H.M., Chirlaque M.D., Larranaga N., Ferrari P., Contiero P., Frasca G., Engeset D., Lund E., Misirli G., Kosti M., Riboli E., Slimani N., Bingham S.

Eur J Clin Nutr; 2009; S16-S36

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Objective: To describe dietary protein intakes and their food sources among 27 redefined centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Methods: Between 1995 and 2000, 36 034 persons, aged between 35 and 74 years, were administered a standardized 24-h dietary recall (24-HDR) using a computerized interview software programme (EPIC-SOFT). Intakes (g/day) of total, animal and plant proteins were estimated using the standardized EPIC Nutrient Database (ENDB). Mean intakes were adjusted for age, and weighted by season and day of recall. Results: Mean total and animal protein intakes were highest in the Spanish centres among men, and in the Spanish and French centres among women; the lowest mean intakes were observed in the UK health-conscious group, in Greek men and women, and in women in Potsdam. Intake of plant protein was highest among the UK health-conscious group, followed by some of the Italian centres and Murcia, whereas Sweden and Potsdam had the lowest intake. Cereals contributed to the highest proportion of plant protein in all centres. The combined intake of legumes, vegetables and fruit contributed to a greater proportion of plant protein in the southern than in the northern centres. Total meat intake (with some heterogeneity across subtypes of meat) was, with few exceptions, the most important contributor to animal protein in all centres, followed by dairy and fish products. Conclusions: This study shows that intake of protein, especially of animal origin, differs across the 10 European countries, and also shows some differences in food sources of protein across Europe. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2009) 63, S16-S36; doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2009.73

Vitamin D receptor and calcium sensing receptor polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal cancer in European populations

Jenab M., McKay J., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., van Duijnhoven F.J., Ferrari P., Slimani N., Jansen E.H., Pischon T., Rinaldi S., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Overvad K., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Engel P., Kaaks R., Linseisen J., Boeing H., Fisher E., Trichopoulou A., Dilis V., Oustoglou E., Berrino F., Vineis P., Mattiello A., Masala G., Tumino R., Vrieling A., Van Gils C.H., Peeters P.H., Brustad M., Lund E., Chirlaque M.D., Barricarte A., Suarez L.R., Molina E., Dorronsoro M., Sala N., Hallmans G., Palmqvist R., Roddam A., Key T.J., Khaw K.T., Bingham S., Boffetta P., Autier P., Byrnes G., Norat T., Riboli E.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2009; 18(9): 2485-2491

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Increased levels of vitamin D and calcium may play a protective role in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. It has been suggested that these effects may be mediated by genetic variants of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the calcium sensing receptor (CASR). However, current epidemiologic evidence from European populations for a role of these genes in CRC risk is scarce. In addition, it is not clear whether these genes may modulate CRC risk independently or by interaction with blood vitamin D concentration and level of dietary calcium intake. A case-control study was conducted nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. CRC cases (1,248) were identified and matched to 1,248 control subjects. Genotyping for the VDR (BsmI: rs1544410; Fok1: rs2228570) and CASR (rs1801725) genes was done by Taqman, and serum vitamin D (25OHD) concentrations were measured. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the incidence rate ratio (RR). Compared with the wild-type bb, the BB genotype of the VDR BsmI polymorphism was associated with a reduced risk of CRC [RR, 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.59-0.98). The association was observed for colon cancer (RR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.45-0.95) but not rectal cancer (RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.62-1.49). The Fok1 and CASR genotypes were not associated with CRC risk in this study. No interactions were noted for any of the polymorphisms with serum 25OHD concentration or level of dietary calcium. These results confirm a role for the BsmI polymorphism of the VDR gene in CRC risk, independent of serum 25OHD concentration and dietary calcium intake

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