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2007

Fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer risk: Updated information from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Linseisen J., Rohrmann S., Miller A.B., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Buchner F.L., Vineis P., Agudo A., Gram I.T., Janson L., Krogh V., Overvad K., Rasmuson T., Schulz M., Pischon T., Kaaks R., Nieters A., Allen N.E., Key T.J., Bingham S., Khaw K.T., Amiano P., Barricarte A., Martinez C., Navarro C., Quiros R., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Touvier M., Peeters P.H., Berglund G., Hallmans G., Lund E., Palli D., Panico S., Tumino R., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Trichopoulou A., Trichopoulos D., Autier P., Boffetta P., Slimani N., Riboli E.

Int J Cancer; 2007; 121(5): 1103-1114

PMID:17487840

Abstract as provided by PubMed

The association of fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer incidence was evaluated using the most recent data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), applying a refined statistical approach (calibration) to account for measurement error potentially introduced by using food frequency questionnaire data. Between 1992 and 2000, detailed information on diet and life-style of 478,590 individuals participating in EPIC was collected. During a median follow-up of 6.4 years, 1,126 lung cancer cases were observed. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were applied for statistical evaluation. In the whole study population, fruit consumption was significantly inversely associated with lung cancer risk while no association was found for vegetable consumption. In current smokers, however, lung cancer risk significantly decreased with higher vegetable consumption; this association became more pronounced after calibration, the hazard ratio (HR) being 0.78 (95% CI 0.62-0.98) per 100 g increase in daily vegetable consumption. In comparison, the HR per 100 g fruit was 0.92 (0.85-0.99) in the entire cohort and 0.90 (0.81-0.99) in smokers. Exclusion of cases diagnosed during the first 2 years of follow-up strengthened these associations, the HR being 0.71 (0.55-0.94) for vegetables (smokers) and 0.86 (0.78-0.95) for fruit (entire cohort). Cancer incidence decreased with higher consumption of apples and pears (entire cohort) as well as root vegetables (smokers). In addition to an overall inverse association with fruit intake, the results of this evaluation add evidence for a significant inverse association of vegetable consumption and lung cancer incidence in smokers. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

Cereal fiber intake may reduce risk of gastric adenocarcinomas: The EPIC-EURGAST study

Mendez M.A., Pera G., Agudo A., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Palli D., Boeing H., Carneiro F., Berrino F., Sacerdote C., Tumino R., Panico S., Berglund G., Manjer J., Johansson I., Stenling R., Martinez C., Dorronsoro M., Barricarte A., Tormo M.J., Quiros J.R., Allen N., Key T.J., Bingham S., Linseisen J., Kaaks R., Overvad K., Jensen M., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Peeters P.H., Numans M.E., Ocke M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Trichopoulou A., Lund E., Slimani N., Jenab M., Ferrari P., Riboli E., Gonzalez C.A.

Int J Cancer; 2007; 121(7): 1618-1623

PMID:17582605

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Numerous case-control studies suggest dietary fiber may reduce risk of gastric cancer, but this has not been confirmed prospectively. A previous case-control study reported reduced risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinomas associated with cereal fiber, but not with fruit or vegetable fiber. To date, different food sources of fiber have not been examined with respect to noncardia tumors or diverse histologic sub-types. This study prospectively examines associations between fiber from different food sources and incident gastric adenocarcinomas (GC) among more than 435,000 subjects from 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Subjects aged 25-70 years completed dietary questionnaires in 1992-98, and were followed up for a median of 6.7 years. About 312 incident GCs were observed. The relative risk of GC was estimated based on cohort-wide sex-specific fiber intake quartiles using proportional hazards models to estimate hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Intakes of cereal fiber, but not total, fruit or vegetable fiber, were associated with reduced GC risk [adjusted HR for the highest vs. lowest quartile of cereal fiber 0.69, 0.48-0.99]. There was a strong inverse association for diffuse [HR 0.43, 0.22-0.86], but not intestinal type [HR 0.98, 0.54-1.80] tumors. Associations for cardia vs. noncardia tumors were similar to those for overall GC, although cardia associations did not reach significance. Cereal fiber consumption may help to reduce risk of GC, particularly diffuse type tumors. Further study on different food sources of fiber in relation to GC risk is warranted to confirm these relationships. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

Socioeconomic position and the risk of gastric and oesophageal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-EURGAST)

Nagel G., Linseisen J., Boshuizen H.C., Pera G., Del Giudice G., Westert G.P., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Allen N.E., Key T.J., Numans M.E., Peeters P.H., Sieri S., Siman H., Berglund G., Hallmans G., Stenling R., Martinez C., Arriola L., Barricarte A., Chirlaque M.D., Quiros J.R., Vineis P., Masala G., Palli D., Panico S., Tumino R., Bingham S., Boeing H., Bergmann M.M., Overvad K., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Olsen A., Tjonneland A., Trichopoulou A., Bamia C., Soukara S., Sabourin J.C., Carneiro F., Slimani N., Jenab M., Norat T., Riboli E., Gonzalez C.A.

Int J Epidemiol; 2007; 36(1): 66-76

PMID:17227779

Abstract as provided by PubMed

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association of socioeconomic position with adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and stomach. METHODS: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort comprises about 520 000 participants mostly aged 35-70 years. Information on diet and lifestyle was collected at recruitment. After an average follow-up of 6.5 years, 268 cases with adenocarcinoma of the stomach and 56 of the oesophagus were confirmed. We examined the effect of socioeconomic position on cancer risk by means of educational data and a computed Relative Index of Inequality (RII). In a nested case-control study, adjustment for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection was performed. RESULTS: Higher education was significantly associated with a reduced risk of gastric cancer [vs lowest level of education, hazard ratio (HR): 0.64, 95% Confidence intervals (CI): 0.43-0.98]. This effect was more pronounced for cancer of the cardia (HR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.20-0.89) as compared to non-cardia gastric cancer (HR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.36-1.22). Additionally, the inverse association of educational level and gastric cancer was stronger for cases with intestinal (extreme categories, HR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.04-0.44) rather than diffuse histological subtype (extreme categories, HR: 0.71 95% CI: 0.37-1.40). In the nested case-control study, inverse but statistically non-significant associations were found after additional adjustment for H. pylori infection [highest vs lowest level of education: Odds ratio (OR) 0.53, 95% CI: 0.24-1.18]. Educational level was non-significantly, inversely associated with carcinoma of the oesophagus. CONCLUSION: A higher socioeconomic position was associated with a reduced risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, which was strongest for cardia cancer or intestinal histological subtype, suggesting different risk profiles according to educational level. These effects appear to be explained only partially by established risk factors

Diet, serum insulin-like growth factor-I and IGF-binding protein-3 in European women

Norat T., Dossus L., Rinaldi S., Overvad K., Gronbaek H., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Boeing H., Lahmann P.H., Linseisen J., Nagel G., Trichopoulou A., Trichopoulos D., Kalapothaki V., Sieri S., Palli D., Panico S., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Peeters P.H., Van Gils C.H., Agudo A., Amiano P., Ardanoz E., Martinez C., Quiros R., Tormo M.J., Bingham S., Key T.J., Allen N.E., Ferrari P., Slimani N., Riboli E., Kaaks R.

Eur J Clin Nutr; 2007; 61(1): 91-98

PMID:16900085

Abstract as provided by PubMed

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of diet with serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 in women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: The population are 2109 women who were control subjects in a case-control study of breast cancer nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Control subjects were randomly chosen among risk sets consisting of female cohort members alive and free of cancer (except non-melanoma skin cancer) at the time of diagnosis of the index case. Matching criteria were age at enrolment, follow-up time, time of the day of blood collection and study centre. Diet was measured through validated questionnaires. Serum hormone concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The relationship between serum IGF-I, IGFBP-3, and intake of nutrients and foods was explored by linear regression in models adjusted for energy intake, age, body mass index, smoking, physical activity, centre and laboratory batch. RESULTS: Serum IGF-I levels were positively related to protein intake (P(trend)<0.001), but not related to energy, fat or carbohydrate intake. Positive relationships were observed with the intake of milk (P(trend)=0.007), calcium (P(trend)<0.001), magnesium (P(trend)=0.003), phosphorus (P(trend)<0.001), potassium (P(trend)=0.002), vitamin B6 (P(trend)=0.03), vitamin B2 (P(trend)=0.001) and inverse relationships with vegetables (P(trend)=0.02) and beta-carotene (P(trend)=0.02). IGFBP-3 was not related with most of the nutrients and foods in this study. CONCLUSIONS: In this population, circulating IGF-I is modestly related with the intake of protein and minerals, and with milk and cheese, while IGFBP-3 does not appear to be related with diet

Eating out of home and its correlates in 10 European countries. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study

Orfanos P., Naska A., Trichopoulos D., Slimani N., Ferrari P., van Bakel M., Deharveng G., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Santucci de Magistris M., Tumino R., Pala V., Sacerdote C., Masala G., Skeie G., Engeset D., Lund E., Jakszyn P., Barricarte A., Chirlaque M.D., Martinez-Garcia C., Amiano P., Quiros J.R., Bingham S., Welch A., Spencer E.A., Key T.J., Rohrmann S., Linseisen J., Ray J., Boeing H., Peeters P.H., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Ocke M., Johansson I., Johansson G., Berglund G., Manjer J., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Touvier M., Clavel-Chapelon F., Trichopoulou A.

Public Health Nutr; 2007; 10(12): 1515-1525

PMID:17582244

Abstract as provided by PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To compare the average out-of-home (OH) consumption of foods and beverages, as well as energy intake, among populations from 10 European countries and to describe the characteristics of substantial OH eaters, as defined for the purpose of the present study, in comparison to other individuals. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Dietary data were collected through single 24-hour dietary recalls, in which the place of consumption was recorded. For the present study, substantial OH eaters were defined as those who consumed more than 25% of total daily energy intake at locations other than the household premises. Mean dietary intakes and the proportion of substantial OH eaters are presented by food group and country. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the odds of being a substantial OH eater in comparison to not being one, using mutually adjusted possible non-dietary determinants. SETTING: Ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). SUBJECTS: The subjects were 34 270 individuals, 12 537 men and 21 733 women, aged 35-74 years. RESULTS: The fraction of energy intake during OH eating was generally higher in northern European countries than in the southern ones. Among the food and beverage groups, those selectively consumed outside the home were coffee/tea/waters and sweets and, to a lesser extent, cereals, meats, added lipids and vegetables. Substantial OH eating was positively associated with energy intake and inversely associated with age and physical activity. Substantial OH eating was less common among the less educated compared with the more educated, and more common during weekdays in central and north Europe and during the weekend in south Europe. CONCLUSIONS: Eating outside the home was associated with sedentary lifestyle and increased energy intake; it was more common among the young and concerned in particular coffee/tea/waters and sweets

CagA+ Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer risk in the EPIC-EURGAST study

Palli D., Masala G., Del Giudice G., Plebani M., Basso D., Berti D., Numans E., Ceroti M., Peeters P.H., Bueno de Mesquita H.B., Buchner F.L., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Krogh V., Saieva C., Vineis P., Panico S., Tumino R., Nyren O., Siman H., Berglund G., Hallmans G., Sanchez M.J., Larranaga N., Barricarte A., Navarro C., Quiros J.R., Key T., Allen N., Bingham S., Khaw K.T., Boeing H., Weikert C., Linseisen J., Nagel G., Overvad K., Thomsen R.W., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Trichoupoulou A., Trichopoulos D., Arvaniti A., Pera G., Kaaks R., Jenab M., Ferrari P., Nesi G., Carneiro F., Riboli E., Gonzalez C.A.

Int J Cancer; 2007; 120(4): 859-867

PMID:17131317

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), atrophic gastritis, dietary and life-style factors have been associated with gastric cancer (GC). These factors have been evaluated in a large case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition carried out in 9 countries, including the Mediterranean area. Participants, enrolled in 1992-1998, provided life-style and dietary information and a blood sample (360,000; mean follow-up: 6.1 years). For 233 GC cases diagnosed after enrolment and their 910 controls individually-matched by center, gender, age and blood donation date H. pylori antibodies (antilysate and antiCagA) and plasma Pepsinogen A (PGA) were measured by ELISA methods. Severe chronic atrophic gastritis (SCAG) was defined as PGA circulating levels <22 mug/l. Overall, in a conditional logistic regression analysis adjusted for education, smoke, weight and consumption of total vegetables, fruit, red and preserved meat, H. pylori seropositivity was associated with GC risk. Subjects showing only antibodies anti-H. pylori lysate, however, were not at increased risk, while those with antiCagA antibodies had a 3.4-fold increased risk. Overall, the odds ratio associated with SCAG was 3.3 (95% CI 2.2-5.2). According to site, the risk of noncardia GC associated with CagA seropositivity showed a further increase (OR 6.5; 95% CI 3.3-12.6); on the other hand, a ten-fold increased risk of cardia GC was associated with SCAG (OR 11.0; 95% CI 3.0-40.9). These results support the causal relationship between H. pylori CagA+ strains infection, and GC in these European populations even after taking into account dietary habits. This association was limited to distal GC, while serologically defined SCAG was strongly associated with cardia GC, thus suggesting a divergent risk pattern for these 2 sites. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc

Variations in plasma phytoestrogen concentrations in European adults

Peeters P.H., Slimani N., van der Schouw Y.T., Grace P.B., Navarro C., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Clavel-Chapelon F., Touillaud M., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Jenab M., Kaaks R., Linseisen J., Trichopoulou A., Trichopoulos D., Dilis V., Boeing H., Weikert C., Overvad K., Pala V., Palli D., Panico S., Tumino R., Vineis P., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Van Gils C.H., Skeie G., Jakszyn P., Hallmans G., Berglund G., Key T.J., Travis R., Riboli E., Bingham S.A.

J Nutr; 2007; 137(5): 1294-1300

PMID:17449595

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Dietary phytoestrogens may play a role in chronic disease occurrence. The aim of our study was to assess the variability of plasma concentrations in European populations. We included 15 geographical regions in 9 European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain, Sweden, The Netherlands, and UK) and a 16th region, Oxford, UK, where participants were recruited from among vegans and vegetarians. All subjects were participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Plasma concentrations of 3 isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, and glycitein), 2 metabolites of daidzein [O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA) and equol] and 2 mammalian lignans (enterodiol and enterolactone) were measured in 1414 participants. We computed geometric means for each region and used multivariate regression analysis to assess the influence of region, adjusted for gender, age, BMI, alcohol intake, smoking status, and laboratory batch. Many subjects had concentrations below the detection limit [0.1 microg/L (0.4 nmol/L)] for glycitein (80%), O-DMA (73%) and equol (62%). Excluding subjects from Oxford, UK, the highest concentrations of isoflavones were in subjects from the Netherlands and Cambridge, UK [2-6 microg/L (7-24 nmol/L); P < 0.05], whereas concentrations for lignans were highest in Denmark [8 microg/L (27 nmol/L); P < 0.05]. Isoflavones varied 8- to 13-fold, whereas lignans varied 4-fold. In the vegetarian/vegan cohort of Oxford, concentrations of isoflavones were 5-50 times higher than in nonvegetarian regions. Region was the most important determinant of plasma concentrations for all 7 phytoestrogens. Despite the fact that plasma concentrations of phytoestrogens in Europe were low compared with Asian populations, they varied substantially among subjects from the 16 different regions

Serum IGF-I, its major binding protein (IGFBP-3) and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Peeters P.H., Lukanova A., Allen N., Berrino F., Key T., Dossus L., Rinaldi S., Van Gils C.H., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Boeing H., Schulz M., Chang-Claude J., Linseisen J., Panico S., Sacerdote C., Palli D., Tumino R., Trichopoulou A., Trichopolos D., Bamia C., Larranaga N., Ardanaz E., Pera G., Quiros J.R., Martinez-Garcia C., Navarro C., Bingham S.A., Khaw K.T., Clavel F., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Overvad K., Tetsche M.S., Lund E., Lundin E., Berglund G., Riboli E., Kaaks R.

Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007; 14(1): 81-90

PMID:17395977

Abstract as provided by PubMed

We set out to study the relationship between circulating levels of IGF-I and its major binding protein (IGFBP-3) in relation to ovarian cancer risk. We conducted a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in prediagnostic serum samples of 214 women who subsequently developed ovarian cancer, and 388 matched control subjects. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate relative risks of ovarian cancer by tertiles of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels. For all women, there was no association between the circulating IGF-I or IGFBP-3 levels and the risk of ovarian cancer. However, among women diagnosed with ovarian cancer aged 55 or younger, the relative risk was higher in the middle or top tertiles of serum IGF-I, when compared with women in the lowest tertile (odds ratios (OR) = 1.8 (95%CI 0.7-4.3) and OR = 2.4 (95%CI 0.9-6.4); P(trend) = 0.08) respectively. These results were adjusted for body mass index, previous hormone use, fertility problems, and parity. Restricting the analysis to women who were premenopausal at blood donation, relative risks for ovarian cancer diagnosed before age 55 were higher (OR = 5.1 (95%CI 1.5-18.2) and OR = 5.6 (95%CI 1.5-20.8) respectively, for second and third tertiles; P(trend) = 0.02). Adjustment for serum IGFBP-3 levels only slightly attenuated relative risk estimates. Relations between IGFBP-3 and ovarian cancer before age 55 were in the same direction as for IGF-I, but less strong and statistically not significant. In women aged over 55, there was no association between serum IGF-I or IGFBP-3 and ovarian cancer risk. Our results suggest that the circulating levels of IGF-I may play a potentially important role in the development of ovarian cancer in women of a pre- or perimenopausal age

Endogenous androgens and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Rinaldi S., Dossus L., Lukanova A., Peeters P.H., Allen N.E., Key T., Bingham S., Khaw K.T., Trichopoulos D., Trichopoulou A., Oikonomou E., Pera G., Larranaga N., Martinez-Garcia C., Ardanaz E., Quiros J.R., Tormo M.J., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Overvad K., Chang-Claude J., Linseisen J., Schulz M., Boeing H., Van Gils C.H., Bueno-de-Mesquita B.H., Pala V., Palli D., Panico S., Tumino R., Vineis P., Clavel-Chapelon F., Mesrine S., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Lundin E., Agren A., Berglund G., Manjer J., Kumle M., Lund E., Slimani N., Saracci R., Riboli E., Kaaks R.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2007; 16(1): 23-29

PMID:17220328

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Few epidemiologic studies have examined the hypothesis that circulating androgens are involved in the development of ovarian cancer. We investigated the association between prediagnostic serum levels of androgens and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and ovarian cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. One hundred and ninety-two ovarian cancer cases and 346 matched controls not using exogenous hormones at baseline blood donation were eligible for the study. Serum levels of testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and SHBG were measured by direct immunoassays. Free testosterone (fT) was calculated according to mass action laws. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios adjusted for possible confounders. Overall, there was no association between serum concentrations of androgens or SHBG and ovarian cancer risk. In postmenopausal women, fT concentrations were inversely related to risk [highest versus lowest tertile odds ratio 0.45 (0.24-0.86); P(trend) = 0.01]. Among women diagnosed before the age of 55 years, there was a negative association with SHBG and a positive association with fT and ovarian cancer risk, although these associations were not statistically significant. The present study suggests that circulating androgens and SHBG levels are not strongly associated with ovarian cancer risk, although levels of fT may be associated with an increased risk among women diagnosed at relatively young age. The heterogeneity of results on the associations of fT with ovarian cancer risk in postmenopausal women deserves further investigation

Fruit and vegetable consumption and lymphoma risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Rohrmann S., Becker N., Linseisen J., Nieters A., Rudiger T., Raaschou-Nielsen O., Tjonneland A., Johnsen H.E., Overvad K., Kaaks R., Bergmann M.M., Boeing H., Benetou V., Psaltopoulou T., Trichopoulou A., Masala G., Mattiello A., Krogh V., Tumino R., Gils C.H., Peeters P.H., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Ros M.M., Lund E., Ardanaz E., Chirlaque M.D., Jakszyn P., Larranaga N., Losada A., Martinez-Garcia C., Agren A., Hallmans G., Berglund G., Manjer J., Allen N.E., Key T.J., Bingham S., Khaw K.T., Slimani N., Ferrari P., Boffetta P., Norat T., Vineis P., Riboli E.

Cancer Causes Control; 2007; 18(5): 537-549

PMID:17443415

Abstract as provided by PubMed

INTRODUCTION: Lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant diseases of cells of the immune system. The best-established risk factors are related to dys-regulation of immune function, and evidence suggests that factors such as dietary or lifestyle habits may be involved in the etiology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 849 lymphoma cases were identified in a median follow-up period of 6.4 years. Fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated from validated dietary questionnaires. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the association between fruit and vegetable intake with the risk of lymphomas overall and subentities. RESULTS: There was no overall association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of lymphoma [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78-1.15 comparing highest with lowest quartile]. However, the risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) tended to be lower in participants with a high intake of total vegetables (HR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.23-1.02). CONCLUSION: In this large prospective study, an inverse associations between fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of lymphomas overall could not be confirmed. Associations with lymphoma subentities such as DLBCL warrant further investigation

Haplotype-Based Analysis of Common Variation in the Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase {alpha} Gene and Breast Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study Nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Sinilnikova O.M., McKay J.D., Tavtigian S.V., Canzian F., DeSilva D., Biessy C., Monnier S., Dossus L., Boillot C., Gioia L., Hughes D.J., Jensen M.K., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Clavel-Chapelon F., Chajes V., Joulin V., Linseisen J., Chang-Claude J., Boeing H., Dahm S., Trichopoulou A., Trichopoulos D., Koliva M., Khaw K.T., Bingham S., Allen N.E., Key T., Palli D., Panico S., Berrino F., Tumino R., Vineis P., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Peeters P.H., Van Gils C.H., Lund E., Pera G., Quiros J.R., Dorronsoro M., Martinez Garcia C., Tormo M.J., Ardanaz E., Hallmans G., Lenner P., Berglund G., Manjer J., Riboli E., Lenoir G.M., Kaaks R.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2007; 16(3): 409-415

PMID:17372234

Abstract as provided by PubMed

A key fatty acid synthesis enzyme, acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (ACC-alpha), has been shown to be highly expressed in human breast cancer and other tumor types and also to specifically interact with the protein coded by one of two major breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1. We used a comprehensive haplotype analysis to examine the contribution of the ACC-alpha common genetic variation (allele frequency >5%) to breast cancer in a case-control study (1,588 cases/2,600 controls) nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. We identified 21 haplotype-tagging polymorphisms efficiently capturing common variation within 325 kb of ACC-alpha and surrounding sequences using genotype data from the HapMap project and our resequencing data. We found an effect on overall risk of breast cancer in homozygous carriers of one common haplotype [odds ratio (OR), 1.74; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.03-2.94]. When the data were subdivided by menopausal status, we found statistical evidence of heterogeneity for two other common haplotypes (P value for heterogeneity = 0.016 and 0.045). In premenopausal women, the carriers of these haplotypes, compared with noncarriers, had an altered risk of breast cancer (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.53-0.92 and OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.04-1.76). These findings were not significant after adjustment for multiple testing and therefore should be considered as preliminary and evaluated in larger independent studies. However, they suggest a possible role of the ACC-alpha common sequence variants in susceptibility to breast cancer and encourage studies of other genes involved in fatty acid synthesis. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007;16(3):409-15)

The EPIC nutrient database project (ENDB): a first attempt to standardize nutrient databases across the 10 European countries participating in the EPIC study

Slimani N., Deharveng G., Unwin I., Southgate D.A., Vignat J., Skeie G., Salvini S., Parpinel M., Moller A., Ireland J., Becker W., Farran A., Westenbrink S., Vasilopoulou E., Unwin J., Borgejordet A., Rohrmann S., Church S., Gnagnarella P., Casagrande C., van Bakel M., Niravong M., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Stripp C., Tjonneland A., Trichopoulou A., Georga K., Nilsson S., Mattisson I., Ray J., Boeing H., Ocke M., Peeters P.H., Jakszyn P., Amiano P., Engeset D., Lund E., de Magistris M.S., Sacerdote C., Welch A., Bingham S., Subar A.F., Riboli E.

Eur J Clin Nutr; 2007; 61(9): 1037-1056

PMID:17375121

Abstract as provided by PubMed

OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the ad hoc methodological concepts and procedures developed to improve the comparability of Nutrient databases (NDBs) across the 10 European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). This was required because there is currently no European reference NDB available. DESIGN: A large network involving national compilers, nutritionists and experts on food chemistry and computer science was set up for the 'EPIC Nutrient DataBase' (ENDB) project. A total of 550-1500 foods derived from about 37,000 standardized EPIC 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRS) were matched as closely as possible to foods available in the 10 national NDBs. The resulting national data sets (NDS) were then successively documented, standardized and evaluated according to common guidelines and using a DataBase Management System specifically designed for this project. The nutrient values of foods unavailable or not readily available in NDSs were approximated by recipe calculation, weighted averaging or adjustment for weight changes and vitamin/mineral losses, using common algorithms. RESULTS: The final ENDB contains about 550-1500 foods depending on the country and 26 common components. Each component value was documented and standardized for unit, mode of expression, definition and chemical method of analysis, as far as possible. Furthermore, the overall completeness of NDSs was improved (>or=99%), particularly for beta-carotene and vitamin E. CONCLUSION: The ENDB constitutes a first real attempt to improve the comparability of NDBs across European countries. This methodological work will provide a useful tool for nutritional research as well as end-user recommendations to improve NDBs in the future

Alcohol intake and breast cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Tjonneland A., Christensen J., Olsen A., Stripp C., Thomsen B.L., Overvad K., Peeters P.H., Van Gils C.H., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Ocke M.C., Thiebaut A., Fournier A., Clavel-Chapelon F., Berrino F., Palli D., Tumino R., Panico S., Vineis P., Agudo A., Ardanaz E., Martinez-Garcia C., Amiano P., Navarro C., Quiros J.R., Key T.J., Reeves G., Khaw K.T., Bingham S., Trichopoulou A., Trichopoulos D., Naska A., Nagel G., Chang-Claude J., Boeing H., Lahmann P.H., Manjer J., Wirfalt E., Hallmans G., Johansson I., Lund E., Skeie G., Hjartaker A., Ferrari P., Slimani N., Kaaks R., Riboli E.

Cancer Causes Control; 2007; 18(4): 361-373

PMID:17364225

Abstract as provided by PubMed

OBJECTIVE: Most epidemiologic studies have suggested an increased risk of breast cancer with increasing alcohol intake. Using data from 274,688 women participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC), we investigated the relation between alcohol intake and the risk of breast cancer. METHODS: Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) based on Cox proportional hazard models were calculated using reported intake of alcohol, recent (at baseline) and lifetime exposure. We adjusted for known risk factors and stratified according to study center as well as potentially modifying host factors. RESULTS: During 6.4 years of follow up, 4,285 invasive cases of breast cancer within the age group 35-75 years were identified. For all countries together the IRR per 10 g/day higher recent alcohol intake (continuous) was 1.03 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.05). When adjusted, no association was seen between lifetime alcohol intake and risk of breast cancer. No difference in risk was shown between users and non-users of HRT, and there was no significant interaction between alcohol intake and BMI, HRT or dietary folate. CONCLUSION: This large European study supports previous findings that recent alcohol intake increases the risk of breast cancer

Serum androgens and prostate cancer among 643 cases and 643 controls in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Travis R.C., Key T.J., Allen N.E., Appleby P.N., Roddam A.W., Rinaldi S., Egevad L., Gann P.H., Rohrmann S., Linseisen J., Pischon T., Boeing H., Johnsen N.F., Tjonneland A., Overvad K., Kiemeney L., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Bingham S., Khaw K.T., Tumino R., Sieri S., Vineis P., Palli D., Quiros J.R., Ardanaz E., Chirlaque M.D., Larranaga N., Gonzalez C., Sanchez M.J., Trichopoulou A., Bikou C., Trichopoulos D., Stattin P., Jenab M., Ferrari P., Slimani N., Riboli E., Kaaks R.

Int J Cancer; 2007; 121(6): 1331-1338

PMID:17514649

Abstract as provided by PubMed

We examined the hypothesis that serum concentrations of circulating androgens and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) are associated with risk for prostate cancer in a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Concentrations of androstenedione, testosterone, androstanediol glucuronide and SHBG were measured in serum samples for 643 prostate cancer cases and 643 matched control participants, and concentrations of free testosterone were calculated. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios for risk of prostate cancer in relation to the serum concentration of each hormone. After adjustment for potential confounders, there was no significant association with overall risk for prostate cancer for serum total or free testosterone concentrations (highest versus the lowest thirds: OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.73-1.41 and OR, 1.07, 95% CI, 0.74-1.55, respectively) or for other androgens or SHBG. Subgroup analyses showed significant heterogeneity for androstenedione by cancer stage, with a significant inverse association of androstenedione concentration and risk for advanced prostate cancer. There were also weak positive associations between free testosterone concentration and risk for total prostate cancer among younger men and risk for high-grade disease. In summary, in this large nested case-control study, concentrations of circulating androgens or SHBG were not strongly associated with risk for total prostate cancer. However, our findings are compatible with a positive association of free testosterone with risk in younger men and possible heterogeneity in the association with androstenedione concentration by stage of disease; these findings warrant further investigation. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

Modified Mediterranean diet and survival after myocardial infarction: the EPIC-Elderly study

Trichopoulou A., Bamia C., Norat T., Overvad K., Schmidt E.B., Tjonneland A., Halkjaer J., Clavel-Chapelon F., Vercambre M.N., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Linseisen J., Rohrmann S., Boeing H., Weikert C., Benetou V., Psaltopoulou T., Orfanos P., Boffetta P., Masala G., Pala V., Panico S., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Ocke M.C., Peeters P.H., van der Schouw Y.T., Gonzalez C., Sanchez M.J., Chirlaque M.D., Moreno C., Larranaga N., Van Guelpen B., Jansson J.H., Bingham S., Khaw K.T., Spencer E.A., Key T., Riboli E., Trichopoulos D.

Eur J Epidemiol; 2007; 22(12): 871-881

PMID:17926134

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Mediterranean diet is associated with lower incidence of coronary heart disease, and two randomised trials indicated that it improves prognosis of coronary patients. These trials, however, relied on a total of 100 deaths and evaluated designer diets in the clinical context. We have evaluated the association of adherence to the modified Mediterranean diet, in which unsaturates were substituted for monounsaturates, with survival among elderly with previous myocardial infarction within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study. As of December 2003, after a median follow-up of 6.7 years, 2671 EPIC participants from nine countries were 60 years or older and had prevalent myocardial infarction but no stroke or cancer at enrolment, complete information on dietary intakes and important covariates and known survival status. Adherence to the modified Mediterranean diet was assessed through a 10-unit-scale. Mortality ratio in relation to modified Mediterranean diet was estimated through Cox regression controlling for possible confounding. Increased adherence to modified Mediterranean diet by two units was associated with 18% lower overall mortality rate (95% confidence interval 7-27%, fixed effects model). There was no significant heterogeneity by sex, age at enrolment, or country, although the association tended to be less evident among northern Europeans. Associations between food groups contributing to the modified Mediterranean diet and mortality were generally weak. A diet inspired by the Mediterranean pattern that can be easily adopted by Western populations is associated with substantial reduction of total mortality of coronary patients in the community

Lung cancers attributable to environmental tobacco smoke and air pollution in non-smokers in different European countries: a prospective study

Vineis P., Hoek G., Krzyzanowski M., Vigna-Taglianti F., Veglia F., Airoldi L., Overvad K., Raaschou-Nielsen O., Clavel-Chapelon F., Linseisen J., Boeing H., Trichopoulou A., Palli D., Krogh V., Tumino R., Panico S., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Peeters P.H., Lund E.E., Agudo A., Martinez C., Dorronsoro M., Barricarte A., Cirera L., Quiros J.R., Berglund G., Manjer J., Forsberg B., Day N.E., Key T.J., Kaaks R., Saracci R., Riboli E.

Environ Health; 2007; 7

PMID:17302981

Abstract as provided by PubMed

BACKGROUND: Several countries are discussing new legislation on the ban of smoking in public places, and on the acceptable levels of traffic-related air pollutants. It is therefore useful to estimate the burden of disease associated with indoor and outdoor air pollution. METHODS: We have estimated exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) and to air pollution in never smokers and ex-smokers in a large prospective study in 10 European countries (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)(N = 520,000). We report estimates of the proportion of lung cancers attributable to ETS and air pollution in this population. RESULTS: The proportion of lung cancers in never- and ex-smokers attributable to ETS was estimated as between 16 and 24%, mainly due to the contribution of work-related exposure. We have also estimated that 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers are attributable to high levels of air pollution, as expressed by NO2 or proximity to heavy traffic roads. NO2 is the expression of a mixture of combustion (traffic-related) particles and gases, and is also related to power plants and waste incinerator emissions. DISCUSSION: We have estimated risks of lung cancer attributable to ETS and traffic-related air pollution in a large prospective study in Europe. Information bias can be ruled out due to the prospective design, and we have thoroughly controlled for potential confounders, including restriction to never smokers and long-term ex-smokers. Concerning traffic-related air pollution, the thresholds for indicators of exposure we have used are rather strict, i.e. they correspond to the high levels of exposure that characterize mainly Southern European countries (levels of NO2 in Denmark and Sweden are closer to 10-20 ug/m3, whereas levels in Italy are around 30 or 40, or higher).Therefore, further reduction in exposure levels below 30 ug/m3 would correspond to additional lung cancer cases prevented, and our estimate of 5-7% is likely to be an underestimate. Overall, our prospective study draws attention to the need for strict legislation concerning the quality of air in Europe

The association of gastric cancer risk with plasma folate, cobalamin, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

Vollset S.E., Igland J., Jenab M., Fredriksen A., Meyer K., Eussen S., Gjessing H.K., Ueland P.M., Pera G., Sala N., Agudo A., Capella G., Del Giudice G., Palli D., Boeing H., Weikert C., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Carneiro F., Pala V., Vineis P., Tumino R., Panico S., Berglund G., Manjer J., Stenling R., Hallmans G., Martinez C., Dorronsoro M., Barricarte A., Navarro C., Quiros J.R., Allen N., Key T.J., Bingham S., Linseisen J., Kaaks R., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Buchner F.L., Peeters P.H., Numans M.E., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Trichopoulou A., Lund E., Slimani N., Ferrari P., Riboli E., Gonzalez C.A.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2007; 16(11): 2416-2424

PMID:18006931

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Previous studies have shown inconsistent associations of folate intake and polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with gastric cancer risk. Our nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort is the first prospective study of blood folate levels and gastric cancer. Gastric cancer cases (n = 247) and controls (n = 631) were matched for study center, age, sex, and time of blood donation. Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene were determined, as were plasma concentrations of folate, cobalamin (vitamin B12), total homocysteine, and methylmalonic acid (cobalamin deficiency marker) in prediagnostic plasma. Risk measures were calculated with conditional logistic regression. Although no relations were observed between plasma folate or total homocysteine concentrations and gastric cancer, we observed a trend toward lower risk of gastric cancer with increasing cobalamin concentrations (odds ratio, 0.79 per SD increase in cobalamin; P = 0.01). Further analyses showed that the inverse association between cobalamin and gastric cancer was confined to cancer cases with low pepsinogen A levels (marker of severe chronic atrophic gastritis) at the time of blood sampling. The 677 C-->T MTHFR polymorphism was not associated with gastric cancer, but we observed an increased risk with the variant genotype of the 1298 A-->C polymorphism (odds ratio, 1.47 for CC versus AA; P = 0.04). In conclusion, we found no evidence of a role of folate in gastric cancer etiology. However, we observed increased gastric cancer risk at low cobalamin levels that was most likely due to compromised cobalamin status in atrophic gastritis preceding gastric cancer. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007;16(11):2416-24)

2006

Polymorphisms in metabolic genes related to tobacco smoke and the risk of gastric cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

Agudo A., Sala N., Pera G., Capella G., Berenguer A., Garcia N., Palli D., Boeing H., Del Giudice G., Saieva C., Carneiro F., Berrino F., Sacerdote C., Tumino R., Panico S., Berglund G., Siman H., Stenling R., Hallmans G., Martinez C., Bilbao R., Barricarte A., Navarro C., Quiros J.R., Allen N., Key T., Bingham S., Khaw K.T., Linseisen J., Nagel G., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Boshuizen H.C., Peeters P.H., Numans M.E., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Trichopoulou A., Lund E., Offerhaus J., Jenab M., Ferrari P., Norat T., Riboli E., Gonzalez C.A.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2006; 15(12): 2427-2434

PMID:17164366

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Metabolizing enzymes, which often display genetic polymorphisms, are involved in the activation of compounds present in tobacco smoke that may be relevant to gastric carcinogenesis. We report the results of a study looking at the association between risk of gastric adenocarcinoma and polymorphisms in genes CYP1A1, CYP1A2, EPHX1, and GSTT1. A nested case-control study was carried out within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, developed in 10 European countries. The study includes 243 newly diagnosed cases of histologically confirmed gastric adenocarcinoma and 946 controls matched by center, age, sex, and date of blood collection. Genotypes were determined in nuclear DNA from WBCs. We found an increased risk of gastric cancer for homozygotes for C (histidine) variant in Y113H of EPHX1 (odds ratio, 1.91; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-3.07) compared with subjects with TC/TT. There was also a significant increased risk for smokers carrying at least one variant allele A in Ex7+129C>A (m4) of CYP1A1 and never smokers with null GSTT1 and allele A in the locus -3859G>A of CYP1A2. Most of these genes are involved in the activation and detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, suggesting a potential role of these compounds in gastric carcinogenesis

No association between polymorphisms in CYP2E1, GSTM1, NAT1, NAT2 and the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

Agudo A., Sala N., Pera G., Capella G., Berenguer A., Garcia N., Palli D., Boeing H., Del Giudice G., Saieva C., Carneiro F., Berrino F., Sacerdote C., Tumino R., Panico S., Berglund G., Siman H., Stenling R., Hallmans G., Martinez C., Amiano P., Barricarte A., Navarro C., Quiros J.R., Allen N., Key T., Bingham S., Khaw K.T., Linseisen J., Nagel G., Overvad K., Tjonneland A., Olsen A., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Boshuizen H.C., Peeters P.H., Numans M.E., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Trichopoulou A., Lund E., Blaker H., Jenab M., Ferrari P., Norat T., Riboli E., Gonzalez C.A.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2006; 15(5): 1043-1045
Reliability of biomarkers of iron status, blood lipids, oxidative stress, vitamin D, C-reactive protein and fructosamine in two Dutch cohorts

Al-Delaimy W.K., Jansen E.H., Peeters P.H., van der Laan J.D., van Noord P.A., Boshuizen H.C., van der Schouw Y.T., Jenab M., Ferrari P., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B.

Biomarkers; 2006; 11(4): 370-382

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Biomarkers are widely used in epidemiology, yet there are few reliability studies to assess the appropriateness of using these biomarkers for the assessment of exposure-disease relationships. The aim of the study was to assess the reliability of 20 biomarkers in serum collected from two Dutch centres (Utrecht and Bilthoven) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) at two points several years apart. Blood samples were collected from 30 men from Bilthoven and 35 women from Utrecht. Ferritin, total iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, transferrin, C-reactive protein, bilirubin, cholesterol, triglycerides, apo lipoprotein-A, apo lipoprotein-B, high-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, uric acid, creatinine, reactive oxygen metabolites, the ferric-reducing ability of plasma, protein thiol oxidation, fructosamine, and vitamin D biomarkers in serum were analysed from the blood samples at the two points of time. For all biomarkers, except C-reactive protein, there were no substantial changes in the mean levels over time. Uric acid, ferritin, creatinine, HDL, and apo lipoprotein-B levels consistently showed the highest reliability for men and women (intra-class correlation = 0.69-0.86). Among women, the ferric-reducing ability of plasma, and protein thiol oxidation had poor reliability; and among men iron-related biomarkers (except serum ferritin) had poor reliability. With the exception of a few gender-specific differences, most of the 20 biomarkers performed well and can be considered to have sufficient reliability to be used in future cohort studies

Anthropometry, physical activity, and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

Berrington de Gonzalez A., Spencer E.A., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Roddam A., Stolzenberg-Solomon R., Halkjaer J., Tjonneland A., Overvad K., Clavel-Chapelon F., Boutron-Ruault M.C., Boeing H., Pischon T., Linseisen J., Rohrmann S., Trichopoulou A., Benetou V., Papadimitriou A., Pala V., Palli D., Panico S., Tumino R., Vineis P., Boshuizen H.C., Ocke M.C., Peeters P.H., Lund E., Gonzalez C.A., Larranaga N., Martinez-Garcia C., Mendez M., Navarro C., Quiros J.R., Tormo M.J., Hallmans G., Ye W., Bingham S.A., Khaw K.T., Allen N., Key T.J., Jenab M., Norat T., Ferrari P., Riboli E.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2006; 15(5): 879-885

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Tobacco smoking is the only established risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Results from several epidemiologic studies have suggested that increased body mass index and/or lack of physical activity may be associated with an increased risk of this disease. We examined the relationship between anthropometry and physical activity recorded at baseline and the risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (n = 438,405 males and females age 19-84 years and followed for a total of 2,826,070 person-years). Relative risks (RR) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models stratified by age, sex, and country and adjusted for smoking and self-reported diabetes and, where appropriate, height. In total, there were 324 incident cases of pancreatic cancer diagnosed in the cohort over an average of 6 years of follow-up. There was evidence that the RR of pancreatic cancer was associated with increased height [RR, 1.74; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.20-2.52] for highest quartile compared with lowest quartile (P(trend) = 0.001). However, this trend was primarily due to a low risk in the lowest quartile, as when this group was excluded, the trend was no longer statistically significant (P = 0.27). A larger waist-to-hip ratio and waist circumference were both associated with an increased risk of developing the disease (RR per 0.1, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.04-1.48; P(trend) = 0.02 and RR per 10 cm, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.26; P(trend) = 0.03, respectively). There was a nonsignificant increased risk of pancreatic cancer with increasing body mass index (RR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.95-1.24 per 5 kg/m(2)), and a nonsignificant decreased risk with total physical activity (RR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.50-1.35 for most active versus inactive). Future studies should consider including measurements of waist and hip circumference, to further investigate the relationship between central adiposity and the risk of pancreatic cancer

The effect of occasional smoking on smoking-related cancers : In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

Bjerregaard B.K., Raaschou-Nielsen O., Sorensen M., Frederiksen K., Tjonneland A., Rohrmann S., Linseisen J., Bergman M.M., Boeing H., Sieri S., Palli D., Tumino R., Sacerdote C., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Buchner F.L., Gram I.T., Braaten T., Lund E., Hallmans G., Agren A., Riboli E.

Cancer Causes Control; 2006; 17(10): 1305-1309

Abstract as provided by PubMed

OBJECTIVE: Most studies on tobacco smoking have focused on daily-smokers. Occasional smokers, who have never smoked daily, have often been included in the reference group of never-smokers. We have investigated the association between occasional smoking and cancer of the bladder, kidney, pancreas, upper aero-digestive tract and lung. METHODS: The study population consisted of 158,488 persons, who provided information on occasional smoking, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 780 of whom developed a smoking-related cancer. We used Cox proportional hazard model, stratified by gender and country to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) for smoking-related cancers. RESULTS: The results suggest that occasional smokers have a higher risk of bladder cancer (IRR: 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-3.98) and of the major smoking-related cancers combined (IRR: 1.24, 95% CI 0.80-1.94) than true never-smokers. Including occasional smokers in the reference group resulted in a lower risk estimate for former and current smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Occasional smoking should be discouraged

Tobacco smoke and bladder cancer--in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

Bjerregaard B.K., Raaschou-Nielsen O., Sorensen M., Frederiksen K., Christensen J., Tjonneland A., Overvad K., Chapelon F.C., Nagel G., Chang-Claude J., Bergmann M.M., Boeing H., Trichopoulos D., Trichopoulou A., Oikonomou E., Berrino F., Palli D., Tumino R., Vineis P., Panico S., Peeters P.H., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Kiemeney L., Gram I.T., Braaten T., Lund E., Gonzalez C.A., Berglund G., Allen N., Roddam A., Bingham S., Riboli E.

Int J Cancer; 2006; 119(10): 2412-2416

Abstract as provided by PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between smoking and the development of bladder cancer. The study population consisted of 429,906 persons participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), 633 of whom developed bladder cancer during the follow-up period. An increased risk of bladder cancer was found for both current- (incidence rate ratio 3.96, 95% confidence interval: 3.07-5.09) and ex- (2.25, 1.74-2.91) smokers, compared to never-smokers. A positive association with intensity (per 5 cigarettes) was found among current-smokers (1.18, 1.09-1.28). Associations (per 5 years) were observed for duration (1.14, 1.08-1.21), later age at start (0.75, 0.66-0.85) and longer time since quitting (0.92, 0.86-0.98). Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) during childhood increased the risk of bladder cancer (1.38, 1.00-1.90), whereas for ETS exposure as adult no effect was detected. The present study confirms the strong association between smoking and bladder cancer. The indication of a higher risk of bladder cancer for those who start smoking at a young age and for those exposed to ETS during childhood adds to the body of evidence suggesting that children are more sensitive to carcinogens than adults

Polymorphisms of genes coding for insulin-like growth factor 1 and its major binding proteins, circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and breast cancer risk: results from the EPIC study

Canzian F., McKay J.D., Cleveland R.J., Dossus L., Biessy C., Rinaldi S., Landi S., Boillot C., Monnier S., Chajes V., Clavel-Chapelon F., Tehard B., Chang-Claude J., Linseisen J., Lahmann P.H., Pischon T., Trichopoulos D., Trichopoulou A., Zilis D., Palli D., Tumino R., Vineis P., Berrino F., Bueno-de-Mesquita H.B., Van Gils C.H., Peeters P.H.M., Pera G., Ardanaz E., Chirlaque M.D., Quiros J.R., Larranaga N., Martinez-Garcia C., Allen N.E., Key T.J., Bingham S.A., Khaw K.T., Slimani N., Norat T., Riboli E., Kaaks R.

Br J Cancer; 2006; 94(2): 299-307

Abstract as provided by PubMed

Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) stimulates cell proliferation and can enhance the development of tumours in different organs. Epidemiological studies have shown that an elevated level of circulating IGF-I is associated with increased risk of breast cancer, as well as of other cancers. Most of circulating IGF-I is bound to an acid-labile subunit and to one of six insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs), among which the most important are IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-1. Polymorphisms of the IGF1 gene and of genes encoding for the major IGF-I carriers may predict circulating levels of IGF-I and have an impact on cancer risk. We tested this hypothesis with a case-control study of 807 breast cancer patients and 1588 matched control subjects, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. We genotyped 23 common single nucleotide polymorphisms in IGF1, IGFBP1, IGFBP3 and IGFALS, and measured serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in samples of cases and controls. We found a weak but significant association of polymorphisms at the 5' end of the IGF1 gene with breast cancer risk, particularly among women younger than 55 years, and a strong association of polymorphisms located in the 5' end of IGFBP3 with circulating levels of IGFBP-3, which confirms previous findings. Common genetic variation in these candidate genes does not play a major role in altering breast cancer risk in Caucasians.British Journal of Cancer (2006) 94, 299-307. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6602936 www.bjcancer.com Published online 10 January 2006

A comprehensive analysis of the androgen receptor gene and risk of breast cancer: results from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

Cox D.G., Blanche H., Pearce C.L., Calle E.E., Colditz G.A., Pike M.C., Albanes D., Allen N.E., Amiano P., Berglund G., Boeing H., Buring J., Burtt N., Canzian F., Chanock S., Clavel-Chapelon F., Feigelson H.S., Freedman M., Haiman C.A., Hankinson S.E., Henderson B.E., Hoover R., Hunter D.J., Kaaks R., Kolonel L., Kraft P., Le Marchand L., Lund E., Palli D., Peeters P.H., Riboli E., Stram D.O., Thun M., Tjonneland A., Trichopoulos D., Yeager M.

Breast Cancer Res; 2006; 8(5): R54

Abstract as provided by PubMed

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Androgens have been hypothesised to influence risk of breast cancer through several possible mechanisms, including their conversion to estradiol or their binding to the oestrogen receptor and/or androgen receptor (AR) in the breast. Here, we report on the results of a large and comprehensive study of the association between genetic variation in the AR gene and risk of breast cancer in the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). METHODS: The underlying genetic variation was determined by first sequencing the coding regions of the AR gene in a panel of 95 advanced breast cancer cases. Second, a dense set of markers from the public database was genotyped in a panel of 349 healthy women. The linkage disequilibrium relationships (blocks) across the gene were then identified, and haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs) were selected to capture the common genetic variation across the locus. The htSNPs were then genotyped in the nested breast cancer cases and controls from the Cancer Prevention Study II, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, Multiethnic Cohort, Nurses' Health Study, and Women's Health Study cohorts (5,603 breast cancer cases and 7,480 controls). RESULTS: We found no association between any genetic variation (SNP, haplotype, or the exon 1 CAG repeat) in the AR gene and risk of breast cancer, nor were any statistical interactions with known breast cancer risk factors observed. CONCLUSION: Among postmenopausal Caucasian women, common variants of the AR gene are not associated with risk of breast cancer

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