IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention
Effectiveness of Tax and Price Policies for Tobacco Control
IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention Volume 14
This new volume of the IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention in Tobacco Control presents a critical review and evaluation of the evidence by 25 international experts from twelve countries on the economics, epidemiology, public policy and tobacco control aspects of tax and price policies. The working group draws conclusions about the effectiveness of tax and price measures to control tobacco use in the population. The Handbook covers an overview of tobacco taxation; industry pricing strategies and other industry initiatives diluting the effects of taxes on consumption; tax, price and aggregated demand for tobacco, as well as demand at the individual level in adults, young people and the economically disadvantaged; tax avoidance and tax evasion and the economic and health impacts of tobacco taxation.
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Smoke-free Policies
IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention Volume 13
This volume is a critical review of the published literature on this highly sensitive issue, led by a Working Group of 17 scientists from nine countries, which draws conclusions about the effectiveness of smoke-free policies. The volume covers the evolution of smoke-free policies, the impact of smoke-free policies on businesses in the hospitality sector, public attitudes towards smoke-free policies and compliance, reductions in exposure to secondhand smoke and the effects on health due to restrictions on smoking following policy implementation. It also considers the effects of mandated smoking restrictions on smoking behaviour, and the effects of voluntary home smoking restrictions on exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking behaviour. This Handbook will be useful for health professionals and policymakers alike in countries that are currently considering legislation to protect the population from tobacco.
Methods for Evaluating Tobacco Control Policies
IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention Volume 12
This volume concentrates on evaluating the impact of societal level interventions to control tobacco use and it is offered as a guide to evaluators in the field. The Handbook covers how the effects of a policy are determined, the core constructs for understanding how and why a given policy works, the potential moderator variables to consider when evaluating a given policy and the data sources that might be useful for evaluation. The Handbook includes logic models outlining relevant constructs for evaluating the effectiveness of policies on tobacco taxation, smoke-free environments, tobacco product regulations, limits on tobacco marketing communications, product labeling, anti-tobacco public communication campaigns and tobacco use cessation interventions.
ISBN 92 832 3011 6
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Tobacco Control: Reversal of Risk after Quitting Smoking
IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention Volume 11
This 11th IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention, and the first in a series focusing on Tobacco Control, presents a comprehensive review of the scientific literature and a thorough evaluation, made by an international group of experts, of the evidence for changes in the risk of cancer, coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, abdominal aortic aneurysm, peripheral artery disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease observed following smoking cessation.
Does the risk of dying from or of developing each of the above cited diseases decrease after smoking cessation? What is the time course of the change in risk? With long durations of cessation, does the risk return to that of never-smokers? The review and evaluations presented in the Handbook answer these questions and identify relevant public health and research recommendations.
ISBN 92 832 3010 8
Cervix Cancer Screening
IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention Volume 10
This volume reviews what is known about the occurrence, natural history and causes, before describing the established methods and newer variants and approaches for screening that are now being introduced, tested or investigated. Based on an international meeting of experts, the volume concludes with their evaluation of the evidence on the efficacy of screening for cervical cancer by the various techniques as well as their relative appropriateness depending on the resources available and competing priorities. It also provides recommendations for the public health implementation of screening, including the frequency of screening and the age groups that should constitute the target population, and the identification of areas for further research.
ISBN 92 832 3009 4
Cruciferous Vegetables, Isothiocyanates and Indoles
IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention Volume 9
There is evidence that cruciferous vegetables at levels relevant to human intake or more can inhibit neoplastic and preneoplastic responses in experimental animals, mainly when given simultaneously with carcinogens or throughout the experiment. The findings of this Handbook should encourage the promotion of cruciferous vegetable consumption as a part of a diet containing a variety of fruit and vegetables to reduce cancer risk and improve health.
ISBN 92 832 3008 6
Fruit and Vegetables
IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention Volume 8
This handbook shows that approximately one in ten cancers in western populations is due to an insufficient intake of fruit and vegetables, a finding that should encourage all organizations as well as governments to continue efforts to increase or maintain fruit and vegetable intake as an important objective of programs to improve nutrition to reduce the burden of cancer and other chronic diseases. The clearest evidence of a cancer-protective effect of eating more fruits is for stomach and oesophageal cancers. Similarly, a higher intake of vegetables probably reduces the incidence of cancer of oesophagus and colon-rectum. Fruit and vegetables contain many nutrients; they also contain other bioactive compounds that may influence many aspects of human biology and related disease processes.
ISBN 92 832 3007 8
Breast Cancer Screening
IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention Volume 7
Breast cancer is the leading site of new cancer cases in women. Early enough detection through mass screening with mammography has been introduced in many countries in the hope that early intervention would lead ro reduced mortality and less aggressive treatment. The aim of this publication is to provide an independent, authoritative review of the evidence of the efficacy and effectiveness of breast cancer screening. This will be of value to governments, public health officials and others concerned with policy recommendations for cancer control.
ISBN 92 832 3006 X
Weight Control and Physical Activity
IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention Volume 6
Maintaing a healthy body weight and regular physical activity is, after tobacco control, the second most important way to prevent cancer.
The suggestions of possible public health action aimed at tackling these risk factors include education activities to promote balanced diets which are not excessive in energy, and broad education and planning to enable and encourage physical activity during work and leisure. The Handbook Weight Control and Physical Activity contains a full discussion of this topic, together with recommendations for public health action.
ISBN 92 832 3005 1
IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention Volume 5
This authoritative illustrated book gives the evaluations on cancer-preventive activity of topical use of sunscreens, as well as recommendations to skin cancer prevention. Prepared by an expert group from 10 countries, it provides an international consensus on the use of sunscreens. The volume describes the efficacy of the use of sunscreens in skin cancer prevention, as well as the reported unwanted side-effects of such use and gives recommendations for further research, and public health related recommendations.
ISBN 92 832 3004 3
IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention Volume 4
Retinoids are a class of compounds structurally related to vitamin A. More than 2500 retinoids have been synthesized and tested for biological activity. Nine of these were evaluated as agents for cancer chemoprevention by an international group of experts at a meeting held in March 1999. Some are agents in clinical use for psoriasis or severe acne, and others are undergoing clinical trials for prevention of second primary tumours in patients with head and neck tumours or breast cancer, while all-transretinoic acid is used in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukaemias. The toxicity of these agents was subjected to close scrutiny by the working group, which concluded that, for nearly all these agents, even if they are eventually shown to be effective for cancer prevention in humans, their toxicity is likely to limit their use.
ISBN 92 832 3003 5
IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention Volume 3
This third volume of the IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention evaluates the cancer preventive potential of vitamin A. The handbook provides a comprehensive review and evaluation of the relevant information in the published scientific literature through April 1998 on the cancer-preventive activity of retinol and retinyl esters. The observed effects of preformed vitamin A on cell and organ culture, on animal models, in dietary observational epidemiological studies, and in human intervention studies are reviewed.
ISBN 92 832 3002 7
IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention Volume 2
In this volume on carotenoids their chemical and physical characteristics, occurrence, production, use, analysis and human exposure, metabolism, kinetics and genetic variation are studied, as well as their cancer-preventive effects, other beneficial effects, carcinogenicity and other toxic effects. A summary of data and recommendations for research are provided at the end.
ISBN 92 832 3001 9
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention Volume 1
The objective of the Handbooks programme is the preparation of critical reviews and evaluations of evidence on the cancer-preventive and other relevant properties of a wide range of potential cancer-preventive agents and strategies by international working groups of experts. In this volume on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs the following drugs are reviewed: Aspirin, Sulindac, Piroxicam and Indomethacin. For each drug, their chemical and physical characteristics, occurence, production, use, analysis and human exposure, metabolism, kinetics and genetic variation are studied, as well as their cancer-preventive effects, other beneficial effects, carcinogenicity and other toxic effects. A summary of data and recommendations for research are provided at the end.
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